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Servants of the regime: sanction list of person accountable for gross human rights violations in Kazakhstan

1. Introduction

In authoritarian Kazakhstan, civil society representatives are subjected to arbitrary detention, criminal prosecution, imprisonment and torture for public and human rights activities, participation in peaceful protests and criticism of the authorities through social networks.

Under the pretext of the COVID-19 pandemic, Kazakhstani authorities have further intensified political repression. The total number of politically persecuted people in Kazakhstan is growing, primarily due to detention of peaceful protesters. Over the past 2.5 years, more than 7,000 peaceful protesters have been arbitrarily detained by force in various regions of Kazakhstan.

With the help of secret court decisions, which were passed without the participation of the defense, the authorities declared the peaceful opposition movements Democratic Choice of Kazakhstan (DCK) and Koshe Partiyasy to be “extremist”. At the time of the ban, these movements had over 277,000 members in their Telegram chats. Relying on decisions to ban the DCK and Koshe Partiyasy, the authorities continue mass persecution of undesirable opposition activists and human rights defenders.

Opposition activists are imprisoned and ill-treated on charges of “positive endorsement of the ideas of the DCK and Koshe Partiyasy”, “discrediting the current government” and “forming a negative image of the government”. In fact, the authorities equate dissent with “extremism”. Kazakhstan does not comply with decisions of UN bodies on release of political prisoners and/or their rehabilitation. These human rights issues, which are the subject of this report, are presented in more detail in Section 2.

Section 4 and Section 5 detail the cases of opposition activists Dulat Agadil, Amanbike Khairolla and Serik Orazov, who died between February and May 2020 as a result of illegal actions and political persecution by law enforcement agencies. The facts allow us to consider these cases as political murders. In the following sections, we look at the role of perpetrators in specific cases concerning the persecution of activists for participation in peaceful gatherings, criticism of the authorities in social media, and other civil and human rights activities.

In this report we examine the facts of crimes committed by Kazakhstani officials in the period from September 2019 to October 2020, which are the basis for the imposition of personal sanctions. These cases can be considered within the framework of the US and UK legislation on personal sanctions in response to the types of gross violations of internationally recognized human rights detailed in this report, in particular:

– the US legislation: the Global Magnitsky Act of 2016, implemented by Executive Order 13818 (provides for the freezing of assets, property, bank accounts) and Section 7031(c) SFOPS [the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2020] (provides for visa restrictions);

– the UK legislation: paragraph 4 of part 1 and paragraph 6 of part 2 of the Global Human Rights Sanctions Regulations 2020, which came into force on 6 July 2020.

Within the framework of these laws, we call for such violations to be examined:

  1. The deaths of opposition activists, which have the character of political murder, as well as sabotaging investigations into these crimes and attempts by the authorities to cover up traces of crime. Political murder is considered to be the act of killing a public or political figure in order to intimidate members of a social group (e.g. political opposition) of which he is a part and also in order to take revenge for his public or political activities. Political murder is the result of systematic political persecution and repressive policies of the authoritarian state against members of civil society and the opposition.
  2. Torture and ill-treatment, concealing acts of torture and covering up those responsible for torture. Our definition of torture and ill-treatment is based on the methodology and comments of the UN Voluntary Fund for Victims of Torture established by the UN General Assembly.

Violations that can be examined under the American Section 7031(c) of the SFOPS [the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2020] (provides for visa restrictions – visa cancellation or inability to obtain a visa):

  1. Arbitrary detention (with the use of brutal force, beatings, use of asphyxiating techniques) of activists and participants in peaceful assemblies. In many cases, the detentions were carried out by people without any distinguishing marks and with gross violations of procedural rules, which looked more like abductions.
  2. Illegal and inappropriate interrogation calls as well as hours of questioning about political views, without lawyers, with the use of threats and psychological pressure and in some cases without food, water and access to the toilet.
  3. Politically motivated administrative arrests and fines for participation in peaceful assemblies, including 5-minute night-time courts right in police stations behind closed doors without lawyers.
  4. Fabrication of criminal charges for civil and human rights activities and flagrant violations of the right to liberty such as politically motivated imprisonment.
  5. Searches of the place of residence of opposition activists; surveillance, pressure, intimidation and death threats against activists and their relatives.

None of the law enforcement officers have been punished for the above-mentioned crimes, despite the abundance of evidence and the wide publicity of the cases. The facts indicate a deliberate policy of the authorities to conceal crimes by law enforcement agencies and to cover up those who are responsible.

On 3 September 2019 the previous report of the Open Dialogue Foundation “Servants of the regime” was published.  On 22 September 2020 we published the continuation and extension of this report. Since then, we have received new personal data of perpetrators, such as their passport numbers, addresses and dates of birth. In some cases, such data are provided by individual relatives or friends of the perpetrators who had refused to put up with their crimes, in other cases – by people who are not indifferent and who possess the relevant information. In addition, with the help of social networks it has been possible to establish kinship relationships of the perpetrators, obtain their photos or dates of birth.

We organised the collection of data on perpetrators and information on their criminal activities on our Instagram account regimeservants, as well as on a specially created Telegram-bot. Receiving information from different sources, we process it and unify it according to one standard.

The Foundation presents an updated version of the report, which includes new data received on some perpetrators. The publication of this personal data is motivated by the broad public interest and the need to protect victims of torture, political murder, arbitrary detention and political repression. This mechanism facilitates the accurate identification of perpetrators, creates conditions for the launch of sanctions procedures, including visa restrictions, and serves as a tool to stop impunity.

We hereby request that the information presented in this report be considered not only by the governments of the United States and Great Britain, but also the competent authorities of Canada, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania as part of their sanction’s legislation under the Global Magnitsky Act. In the future, this information may be useful for the governments of Switzerland, Australia and the European Union, which are developing their analogues of the Magnitsky Act.

This document provides evidence in favour of imposing personal sanctions against such persons as:

  • The heads of Kazakhstani state bodies whose employees commit serious human rights violations:Chairman of the Security Council and First President (Yelbasy) Nursultan Nazarbayev, Chairman of the National Security Committee (KNB) Karim Massimov, First Deputy Chairman of the National Security Committee Samat Abish, Interior Minister Yerlan Turgumbayev and Prosecutor General Gizat Nurdauletov. They are the ones who give the orders and lead the political prosecutions.

    Section 3 describes the rigid vertical structure and centralised decision-making process in these bodies, their organisational structure and hierarchy. This means that the heads of the KNB, MIA, Security Council and Prosecutor’s Office have direct control over the perpetrators of violations and are personally responsible for the crimes committed by these agencies. They are not only aware of these crimes, but also ensure impunity for the perpetrators.
  • Executors of criminal orders that are directly or indirectly involved in crimes are both heads of law enforcement agencies’ departments and ordinary employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, NSC, Prosecutor’s Office, akimats and judges. These persons from 26 cities in Kazakhstan are listed in Section 6.

In total, this report mentions the names of 364 human rights violators — employees of law enforcement agencies, akimats and courts. Some of them are included in a separate list in Annex 1. The annex lists violators for whom there is insufficient personal information and they are under further monitoring by civil society representatives.

Only selected cases for which information and evidence have been collected are examined in the report. However, these cases illustrate the general pattern of repression and the systemic institutional features of the work of the KNB, the Interior Ministry and the Prosecutor’s Office. These institutions actually serve as a protection for the political regime and are used as a tool to combat dissent.

Due to the lack of the rule of law and fair justice, gross violations of the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly, freedom of opinion, freedom of information, protection from arbitrary detention, protection from torture, the right to a lawyer and a fair trial remain unpunished in Kazakhstan. Thus, the authorities do not comply with the ratified international agreements — the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the UN Convention against Torture. These actions also run counter to the Enlarged Partnership Agreement with the EU, the recommendations of the European Parliament Resolution of 14 March 2019 and the ODIHR and Venice Commission Guidelines on Freedom of Peaceful Assembly.

Personal sanctions demonstrate a clear position that such violations will not be tolerated by a democratic public. Senior officials who are in charge of these illegal activities, as well as their relatives, have financial accounts and real estate in developed democracies, do business there, purchase things, conduct business visits and travel (Section 3). The imposition of sanctions will affect the reputation of these individuals and their position in the international financial system.

Personal sanctions are an additional lever of influence in diplomatic discussions and an effective incentive to change the policies and behaviour of violators. Personal sanctions have a direct impact on violators and do not have a negative impact on the state as a whole. Successful use of the instruments of the Magnitsky Act will lead to an improvement of the situation with regard to human rights and the rule of law, which in turn will reduce the risks in terms of security in the region and the protection of investments of democratic states.

The report is based on information and evidence from 1,119 victims of political persecution from 37 cities in Kazakhstan (their names are given in Annex 2), as well as documents, administrative and criminal case materials, and photo and video materials. In addition, the report includes information received from participants of the human rights monitoring Facebook group #IHaveAChoice #ActivistsNotExtremists, administered by the Open Dialogue Foundation with support from the Qaharman Human Rights Protection Foundation and the 405 human rights movement. The group, consisting of more than 3,500 participants from different cities of Kazakhstan, was established to collect information and provide assistance to victims for their participation in peaceful protests.

2. Political persecution and mass arbitrary detention in Kazakhstan

In the Human Rights Report for 2019, the U.S. Department of State noted the existence of human rights issues in Kazakhstan such as: unlawful or arbitrary killing by or on behalf of the government; torture by and on behalf of the government; political prisoners; significant problems with the independence of the judiciary; restrictions on free expression, the press, and the internet; substantial interference with the rights of peaceful assembly and freedom of association; restrictions on political participation; significant acts of corruption; trafficking in persons; and the outlawing of independent trade unions.

In November 2019, as part of the UN Universal Periodic Review, the UK focused on its recommendation that Kazakhstan implement legislation and implement measures to protect freedom of assembly and association. The UK delegation also enquired about how the Government of Kazakhstan was ensuring fair justice.

Violent forceful dispersal of mass peaceful rallies

Over the past 2.5 years, thousands of peaceful anti-government rallies have taken place in various regions of Kazakhstan. During this time the authorities have subjected more than 7,000 peaceful protesters to arbitrary detention by force. These are those who have been identified by human rights defenders who collect detention lists (in particular, the human rights organisations Qaharman, 405 and Open Dialogue Foundation). This is why, in reality, the number of detainees is even higher. Such massive arbitrary detentions of peaceful protesters have reached a level unprecedented in Kazakhstan’s history.

In particular, from May 2018 to September 2020, the following peaceful rallies took place, which ended in arbitrary detentions using brute force:

  • On 10 May 2018, more than 180 participants were detained for participation in a rally against torture and for the release of political prisoners.
  • On 23 June 2018, more than 200 people were detained for participation in a rally in support of free education.
  • On 6 July 2018, about 50 people were detained in order to prevent a planned rally in support of a credit amnesty.
  • On 27 February 2019, more than 200 people were detained at rallies demanding democratic change, fighting corruption and improving social welfare.
  • On 21 March 2019-22 March 2019, 1 May 2019 and 9 May 2019, rallies were held against the renaming of Astana to Nur-Sultan after Nazarbayev, demanding an end to political persecution and a boycott of the extraordinary presidential elections. In total, over 400 peaceful protesters were detained.
  • On 9-12 June 2019, people peacefully protested against systemic falsification in the presidential elections. According to official data alone, about 4,000 people were detained.
  • On the eve and during the days of peaceful protests 6 July 2019, 21 September 2019 and 26 October 2019, more than 1,000 activists were detained. The protesters demanded the cancellation of the results of the presidential election, the removal of Nazarbayev from power, and opposed Chinese expansion.
  • On the eve and on the Day of Remembrance for Victims of Political Repression, 16 December 2019, the authorities detained more than 110 activists who demanded the release of political prisoners.
  • On 22 February 2020, peaceful protesters called for the resignation of Nursultan Nazarbayev and his retinue, and expressed dissatisfaction with the lack of democracy and justice. Over 220 activists were detained.
  • A minimum of 244 people were detained for participation in rallies on 25 February 2020, 27 February 2020 and 1 March 2020. The protesters demanded punishment for the political murder of opposition activist Dulat Agadil, regime change and a termination of torture.
  • The participants of the rally on 6 June 2020 expressed their dissatisfaction with the ineffective state policy to counteract the Coronavirus pandemic, demanded improvement of social guarantees against the background of the pandemic, cessation of political persecution and punishment of those responsible for the murder of opposition activist Dulat Agadil. Over 300 people were detained for taking part in the rally.
  • Throughout the summer of 2020, activists using the Asar method (a Kazakhstani tradition of joint gratuitous work) helped to build a house for the family of Dulat Agadil, who was killed in the pre-trial detention facility.  On 24 July 2020, after the completion of the next stage of house construction, a group of activists walked from the house of Dulat Agadil to his grave, which is situated outside the village.  On 8 August 2020, in honour of the completion of a house for the family of the deceased, activists from different regions of Kazakhstan held a memorial ceremony in honour of Dulat Agadil in Talapker village, where he lived. A minimum of 183 people were prosecuted for taking part in the memorial ceremony in honour of Dulat Agadil (arrests, detentions, interrogations, pressure from special services), 96 of whom were subjected to administrative arrest and 38 to fines. In addition, at present, criminal proceedings have been initiated against at least 57 opposition activists. They are prosecuted for participating in the memorial ceremony in honour of Dulat Agadil, for providing his family with humanitarian assistance and for supporting the peaceful opposition movements of DCK and Koshe Partiyasy. Most of them have been charged with “participation in the activities of the organisation after it was declared extremist” (Article 405 Part 2 of the Criminal Code).
  • On 25 September 2020 peaceful protesters demanded a change of political regime, payment of social allowances and a credit amnesty in the context of the pandemic, and the abolition of unjustified restrictive quarantine measures. The authorities have once again resorted to massive arbitrary detentions. Human rights defenders managed to identify at least 162 people who were detained on the day of the rally, 25 September 2020. On the eve of the rally, the authorities arrested 16 activists and fined 7 more people.

In addition to the mass meetings mentioned above, dozens of spontaneous and local actions, pickets, flash mobs and online protest challenges took place during this period.

To disperse the rallies, the authorities involved police officers, special police units and internal troops, as well as internal troops equipment. At the same time, in most cases, members of the law enforcement agencies had no recognisable signs and concealed their faces.

Police officers refused to introduce themselves, show their IDs or give the reason for arrest. They rudely grabbed the protesters, twisted their arms and legs and dragged them to the prisoner transport vehicles, partly dragging them along the asphalt. At the same time, the police used forceful grips and suffocating techniques. There have been recorded cases of protesters being beaten with batons, punched and kicked, including deliberate beatings – in situations where there was no resistance.

Many beaten peaceful rally participants were injured, including fractures, dislocations, bruises, hematomas and brain injuries, and were later hospitalised.

Parents with young children, elderly people and passers-by were also pushed into police buses. During the protests in 2019-2020 dozens of journalists were detained. There were numerous cases of unknown masked persons (so-called “titushky”) appearing in places of mass arrest of protesters, in order to help to detain protesters and obstruct the work of journalists. At the same time, law enforcement officials do not react to illegal actions by “titushky” in any way.

Law enforcement authorities detained the participants of the rallies on their way to the planned meetings. In addition, there have been systematic cases when the authorities have resorted to preventive detentions before planned peaceful protests. On the eve and on the day of the protests, the police keep an eye on the houses of activists who regularly go to the protests. These activists are detained or summoned for questioning. Subpoenas for interrogations are often filled in on the spot by a police officer, although the law requires that the subpoena be properly executed by an investigator.

Police officers often work together with NSC officers who act under fictitious names, always wear civilian clothes and often hide their faces under masks. During rallies, they monitor the dispersal of protesters and give detention instructions to the police. Some “committee members” act as provocateurs to create the appearance of a “non-peaceful character” of the action. In many cases, NSC officers are present during interrogations and participate in trials of activists.

Against the backdrop of mass protests in Belarus and the Russian Khabarovsk Krai, the Kazakhstani authorities have tightened methods of persecuting activists. In July-August 2020 in Almaty, Nur-Sultan and Aktau, activists were detained and searched by armed officers of special police and NSC units.

Interrogation and persecution for political views

Detainees at peaceful rallies were taken to police stations and subjected to illegal interrogations about their political views and attitude towards authorities. The police take away the detainees’ phones and check whether they are subscribed to the pages of opposition movements “Democratic Choice of Kazakhstan” or “Koshe Partiyasy” on social networks. Law enforcement officials intimidated detainees and forced them to write statements refusing “to take part in meetings” and at the same time “to support the policy of the President”.

As a result of the monitoring, we have received information about several hundred peaceful protesters who were arbitrarily detained in police stations until late at night for 6-8 hours, and in some cases for more than 12 hours. According to Kazakhstani legislation, in the event of an administrative violation, the detention can last no longer than three hours (Article 622 of the Code of Administrative Offences).

Many detainees were not allowed to eat, drink or use the toilet for several hours, which amounts to ill-treatment. Lawyers were not allowed to visit them and they were deprived of the right to call their relatives. Most of the detainees were not given any documents regarding their arrest, search and interrogation.

Court sessions in the case of detained peaceful assembly participants almost always end with convictions. Courts often take place late in the evening or at night and last only a few minutes. Detainees are usually only provided with state lawyers who do not defend their rights before the court.

For example, 677 people were placed under administrative arrest for participating in peaceful protests on 9-12 June 2019. They were tried at night, without lawyers, behind closed doors, right in police stations (so-called “mobile courts”). Prosecutors and judges arrived at the police stations. The courts were rushed and often lasted less than 5 minutes. Even the appearance of separation of powers was ignored, as the courts were held within the closed territory of the bodies of executive power, where it is impossible to ensure proper examination of evidence and interviewing of witnesses.

In addition, due to the non-adversarial courts, which were held at night and lasted from 3 to 15 minutes, dozens of activists were sentenced to arrests and fines for their participation in the memorial ceremony in honour of the murdered opposition activist Dulat Agadil.

Mass persecution for supporting the peaceful opposition movements of the DCK and “Koshe Partiyasy”

Detentions of peaceful assembly participants and persecutions of civil society representatives increased after the authorities declared the peaceful opposition movements Democratic Choice of Kazakhstan (DCK) and “Koshe Partiyasy” as “extremist”. Both decisions were made secretly, and investigative actions and courts were held without the participation of the representatives from Democratic Choice of Kazakhstan (DCK) and “Koshe Partiyasy”. They were deprived of their right to defense.

The DCK opposition movement started its activity in April 2017. The purpose of the DCK was to change the authoritarian Kazakhstani regime through peaceful protests and to build a parliamentary republic. On 13 March 2018, the Yesilsky District Court of Nur-Sultan, granted a petition of the General Prosecutor’s Office to recognize the DCK as “extremist”. At that time, there were more than 100,000 members of the DCK in the Telegram chat. The court’s decision states that the DCK “creates a negative image of power”, “incites to hatred” and “encourages political disobedience“. The European Parliament has recognized the DCK as a peaceful movement.

The “Koshe Partiyasy” opposition movement was established in various cities in Kazakhstan in February 2020. On their Telegram chat, activists peacefully discussed social and political issues. As of 19 May 2020, there were 177,456 people on the chat. The activists sharply criticized the government’s actions to keep silence on the real scale and consequences of the pandemic in Kazakhstan, which was one of the main reasons for their persecution. On 19 May 2020, the Yesilsky District Court of Nur-Sultan, at the request of the General Prosecutor’s Office, secretly recognised “Koshe Partiyasy” as an “extremist” organisation and banned its activities in Kazakhstan.

Neither law enforcement agencies nor the court provided the activists of the “Koshe Partiyasy” with a court decision. The court denied the activists’ right of appeal, stating that they were allegedly “not a party to the case,” although these very activists were persecuted by NSC and MIA agents for their participation in the “Koshe Partiyasy” movement.

The authorities incriminate activists with “criminal acts” such as “posts on social networks that discredit the Head of State and the current government” and “shouting out ideas at meetings that form a negative image of government” [seized Kazakhstani flags, as well as blue ribbons and balloons (blue is the colour of DCK symbolic) were attached to the case file as material evidence. During interrogations, some activists were asked to say on camera that they were calling on them “not to support” the DCK and Koshe Partiyasi, as well as “not to go to rallies”]. The authorities prosecute activists for “positive approval” and support of the DCK and its leader Mukhtar Ablyazov on social networks, as well as for support of the “Koshe Partiyasy” movement. For this purpose, activists are charged with “participation in the activities of the organisation after it has been declared extremist” (Article 405 of the Criminal Code). In Kazakhstan’s detention facilities, several activists from the DCK have been subjected to ill-treatment [Kenzhebek Abishev, Almat Zhumagulov, Ablovas Dzhumayev, Oksana Shevchuk, Zhazira Demeuova]. They were asked to testify about the activities of the opposition movement, refuse lawyers and “repent“.

At present, the Expert Council of Human Rights Defenders of Kazakhstan currently includes a minimum of 20 political prisoners, most of whom are imprisoned for supporting DCK or “Koshe Partiyasy”:

  • Asset Abishev, Almat Zhumagulov, Kenzhebek Abishev, Serik Idyryshev, Medet Yeseneyev and Askar Ibrayev are serving prison sentences on charges of supporting the opposition movement DCK.
  • Activists Askhat Zheksibayev, Kairat Klyshev, Abai Begimbetov, Askar Nurmaganov, Marat Duysenbiyev, Baghdat Baktybayev, Murat Baimagambetov are under pre-trial arrest on charges of supporting the “Koshe Partiyasy” opposition movement, and face up to two years in prison.
  • Among other political prisoners, Aron Atabek, Max Bokayev, Yerzhan Yelshibayev and Sanavar Zakirova are serving their prison sentences because of their social activities. Ruslan Guinatullin, Igor Chuprina and Igor Sychev [There is no accurate information on Igor Sychev at the moment. It is possible that his sentence has already come to an end] are imprisoned because of their publications on social networks.

There is a great risk that the list of political prisoners could be expanded, as at least 57 criminal cases were initiated in August-October 2020 under Article 405 of the Criminal Code for supporting the “Koshe Partiyasy”. One of the activists, Nurbol Onerkhan, is currently under house arrest awaiting trial [In the status of a suspect are: Galiya Aminova, Roza Bekesheva, Alibek Moldin, Bauyrzhan Sarkulov (Aktobe); Aigul Utepova, Anna Shukeyeva, Yerbol Yeskhozhin, Aibek Sabitov (Nur-Sultan); Aigul Akberdiyeva (Aktau); Nurbol Onerkhan (Birlik); Murat Sapiyev (Aksakai); Kanat Dzhakupov (Almaty); Ruslan Nurkanov (Kasym)].

On 16 October 2020 24 deputies of the European Parliament criticized in their letters the decision of the authorities of Kazakhstan to recognize the peaceful movement “Koshe Partiyasy” as “extremist”, as well as political persecution of dozens of activists from this movement. MEPs emphasized that prosecutions for peaceful discussions of political and social issues on the Internet are an abuse of legislation on “extremism”.  Earlier UN Special Rapporteur Fionnuala D. Ní Aoláin expressed concern about the practice in Kazakhstan of using legislation to counter extremism against political groups and critical voices.

In addition, more than 25 activists in Kazakhstan have already been sentenced to restriction of liberty for supporting the DCK. Additional restrictions have been imposed on them, including a ban on going to meetings and using social networks. Thus, the authorities are blocking their public activities.

Another tool for persecuting opposition activists was the blocking of their bank accounts as part of investigations into cases involving “extremist” Articles (including under Article 405 of the Criminal Code). For example, in March 2020, the Police Department of Almaty blocked the bank accounts of more than 15 activists.

Thus, all undesirable opposition activists who seek the resignation of the government and a peaceful change of power are persecuted, referring to decisions to ban the DCK and the “Koshe Partiyasy”. In fact, the authorities equate dissent with “extremism”. In the last four years, only 29 Kazakhstani political prisoners have been released [Among those released: opposition politician Vladimir Kozlov; journalists Guzal Baidalnova, Seitkazy Matayev, Aset Matayev, Yaroslav Golyshkin and Amangeldy Batyrbekov; activists Zinada Mukhortova, Ardak Ashim, Talgat Ayan, Ablovas Dzhumayev, Sanat Bukenov, Zhambyl Kobeisinov, Yerzhan Orazalinov, Makhambet Abzhan, Sanat Dosov, Anuar Ashiraliyev, Bolatkhan Zhunusov, Serik Zhahin, Gulzipa Dzhukerova, Jazira Demeuova, Oksana Shevchuk; trade union leaders Amin Yeleusinov and Nurbek Kushakbayev; scientific researcher Sayat Ibrayev; torture victim Iskander Erimbetov and victims of the criminal case against Yerimbetov Dmitry Pestov and Vasilina Sokolenko; refugees from Xinjiang Caster Musakhanuly, Murager Alimuly]. Some of them have served their full sentence and some have been released early due to consistent international pressure on the diplomatic and political levels. However, once released, they remain under the thumb of authorities and, in fear of retrial, cannot express criticism of the authorities.

In Kazakhstan, over 99.8% of sentences result in convictions. In cases of political prisoners, the authorities make it a condition that they will be released or get reduction of the sentence if they “‘plead guilty’. Over the past 7 years, the US Department of State has indicated in its annual reports that there is no fair trial in Kazakhstan, especially in politically motivated cases [1], [2]. The US Department of State emphasizes that in Kazakhstan, the executive branch controls the legislature, the judiciary, and local authorities.

Systemic nature of torture in Kazakhstan

Torture in Kazakhstan and impunity for its use are widespread and systemic [3], [4]. The Coalition of International NGOs Against Torture records approx. 200 cases of torture in detention centres and prisons in Kazakhstan every year. In October 2019, human rights activists reported that every day and a half one person dies in Kazakhstan’s detention facilities as a result of suicide, torture or tuberculosis. Most torture cases are closed due “to lack of evidence”.  According to statistics, on average, only 2% of torture cases in Kazakhstan reach the stage of consideration in court. The number of cases in which persons involved in torture are actually brought to justice is even fewer. The Kazakhstani authorities refuse to implement the UN recommendations on review of cases and on compensation to torture victims Iskander Yerimbetov and Mukhtar Dzhakishev, as well as on the release of political prisoner Max Bokayev.

At the end of October, a case of torture was reported against an activist who had been detained on the day of a peaceful rally on 25 September 2020. The case concerns the activist Asylzhan Asabayev from Zhanabazar village in Turkestan Region, who had previously been persecuted for taking part in a memorial ceremony in honour of the killed opposition activist Dulat Agadil. On 25 September 2020 Asabaev was detained. He was held for 24 hours at the Kazygurt District Police Department. There the police took him to the basement of the gym, where they beat him on his kidneys and ribs, demanding that he no longer go to rallies. The activist was threatened that they would put a bag over his head and strangle him. Asabayev’s relatives receive threats that he could go to prison.

Political repression during the COVID-19 pandemic

Kazakhstan, like a number of other authoritarian states (China, Iran, Turkey and Russia), is carrying out political repressions under the pretext of the Coronavirus pandemic. In Kazakhstan, the fight against the infection was led not by physicians, but by the NSC and law enforcement agencies. Following the example of China, the Kazakhstani authorities have resorted to concealing information about the scale and consequences of the pandemic in the country.

Medical doctors and civil society activists constantly report concealment of the real extent of the epidemic, corruption, a lack of personal protective equipment, a lack of adequate social support for doctors, problems in the medical field and inefficiency of the authorities’ actions. For doing this, they are subjected to detention and arrest, criminal and administrative liability, intimidation and information attacks. Medical doctors are also threatened with disciplinary sanctions and dismissal.

Additional instruments for political repression were provided by the state of emergency, which lasted almost two months in Kazakhstan, from 15 March 2020 to 11 May 2020. During this period, more than 16,000 people were detained for violation of the state of emergency.

Opposition activists, bloggers and human rights defenders were arbitrarily accused of “violating the state of emergency” and “provoking the violation of law and order in the conditions of emergency”. They were arbitrarily arrested and fined for criticizing the authorities on social networks (more than 80 cases were recorded during the emergency period) [For example, Azamat Baikenov, a blogger, received a year of freedom restrictions, while Arman Khassenov was held in a pre-trial detention facility and convicted to 3 years of freedom restrictions for “public insult and violation of honour” of Nursultan Nazarbayev].

During the state of emergency, the government of Kazakhstan hastily adopted a new law “On the procedure for organizing and holding peaceful assemblies”. On 25 May 2020 President Tokayev signed it. Bodies of the UN, the OSCE, deputies of the European Parliament, the U.S. Department of State, international associations of lawyers and human rights organizations [5], [6] repeatedly emphasized that the law proposed by the authorities fundamentally does not meet international standards, excessively restricts the right to peaceful assembly and fundamentally contradicts international obligations of Kazakhstan. However, the authorities have openly disregarded all recommendations of the international community [The authorities have left the de facto permissive nature of the meetings. Moreover, according to the law, all peaceful assemblies can only be held in “specialised places” defined by the local authorities. This norm has been subject to a wave of criticism from the international community].

Prosecution of human rights defenders

Human rights defenders Dana Zhanay, Altynay Tuksikova (Qaharman Foundation for Human Rights) and Anna Shukeyeva (Human Rights Movement 405), who monitor the observance of human rights in the context of the pandemic and the mass arbitrary detention of peaceful protesters, have faced repeated forceful detentions, interrogations, fines and threats from the authorities of Kazakhstan. On 12 October 2020, Anna Shukeyeva was sentenced to a fine of around 140 euro on a criminal charge of “public insult to a representative of the authorities”. (Article 378 of the Criminal Code). Another Qaharman activist, Zuhra Nariman from Aktobe, is being prosecuted. In May-August 2020, she was repeatedly summoned for questioning by police officers and prosecutors in a criminal case on her “participation in the activities of the organisation after it being declared extremist” (Article 405 of the Criminal Code). Nariman is accused of criticizing the authorities and calling for rallies on social networks. Her relatives are under pressure from the law enforcement agencies [7], [8].

On 17 September 2020, Kazakhstani activists announced the creation of the Veritas human rights movement, which aims to monitor the observance of Kazakhstan’s commitments on human rights, environment and health. Immediately afterwards, an increased systematic prosecution of activists took place, in particular Alma Nurusheva, Nazym Serikpekova, Roza Musayeva and Aliya Zhakupova from Nur-Sultan. They were prosecuted for humanitarian aid campaign for the family of the murdered opposition activist Agadil (Nurusheva was arrested for 7 days and Musayeva and Zhakupova were fined about 190 euro). The activists are also being prosecuted for monitoring violations of the right to peaceful assembly in connection with the peaceful protest on 25 September 2020. Nurusheva was detained at night on 28 September 2020, while Musayeva was detained and interrogated on 2 October 2020 and 11 October 2020.

In October 2020, it became known that criminal proceedings had been initiated against Serikpekova and Musayeva under Article 378 of the Criminal Code (“public insult to a representative of the authorities”). They are accused of shouting “dogs of Nazarbayev” at the police station on 25 February 2020, after they were detained at a peaceful rally demanding an investigation into the murder of the opposition activist Agadil. Criminal prosecution intensified in October 2020, immediately after the activists announced the creation of the Veritas human rights movement.

On 17 October 2020 and 18 October 2020 Veritas human rights defenders tried to hold a humanitarian aid campaign for families of Kazakhstani political prisoners. However, about 100 officers of special police and internal troops were pulled to the site of the action and disrupted it. They prevented anyone from handing over the humanitarian aid and rudely detained activists Roza Musayeva, Alma Nurusheva, Nazym Serikpekova, Gulzhanat Temirkhan and volunteers Ainura Myrzaliyeva, Altyn Lesbayev and Aibek Sabitov. Activists presented children’s drawings at auction, but on 17 October 2020 the police officers confiscated them (having drawn up a relevant protocol), and on 18 October 2020 they were torn apart.

One of the initiators of the Bostandyq Kz human rights movement, Daryn Khassenov from Bayanaul, has been prosecuted. The movement was founded in September 2020, and in the same month, Farhat Rakhimov, Deputy Head of the Bayanaul District Police Department, filed a lawsuit against activist Khassenov aimed at protecting his own honour and dignity, demanding US$2374 as “moral damage”. In August 2020, in a video message on Facebook, Daryn Khassenov called on police officers to protect the rights and freedoms of people of Kazakhstan and said that Rakhimov “sold his people for a salary”.

Seven lawsuits have been filed against human rights activist Elena Semenova, head of the public organisation “We Are Against Torture”, by prison management. The courts of first instance have already satisfied 3 claims against Semenova, and 3 claims have been withdrawn. Semenova receives evidence of torture, ill-treatment and failure to provide medical assistance from prisoners. After that she makes these facts public and demands an investigation. Representatives of the prisons demand that she recant reports of torture and apologise for “insulting [their] honour and dignity”. Obviously, through a series of lawsuits, the authorities are trying to silence Semenova and block her human rights activities. Earlier, in 2018, the Kazakhstani authorities charged Semenova with “disseminating knowingly false information” for speaking in the European Parliament about the situation with tortures in Kazakhstan. Against the backdrop of international publicity, the case was dismissed.

In two letters to the authorities of Kazakhstan on 16 October 2020, 24 members of the European Parliament defended the prosecuted human rights defenders Zhanay, Tuksikova, Shukeyeva, Serikpekova, Khassenov, Nurusheva, Nariman and Semenova. MEPs also supported the demands of Kazakhstani civil society for a full investigation into the deaths of activists Dulat Agadil, Amanbike Khairolla and Serik Orazov, who were subjected to political prosecution. Representatives of the European Parliament expressed dissatisfaction with the fact that at least 39 activists are being prosecuted for participating in the memorial ceremony in honour of Agadil and humanitarian aid campaign for his family. “The government’s stated intention to transform Kazakhstan into a ‘listening state’ is not in line with the appalling human rights situation,” MEPs said [9], [10].

3. Strict power hierarchy and direct responsibility of top officials fro gross human rights violations

In different regions of Kazakhstan, mass arrests and criminal prosecutions of peaceful assembly participants followed the same pattern. Law enforcement agencies acted synchronously: the same violations were recorded in all cities. Representatives of the National Security Committee, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Prosecutor’s Office participated in detentions and interrogations. Individual agents often told activists that they were “following orders”.

This shows that the gross human rights violations mentioned in this report are politically coordinated by the highest state officials: the Chairman of the National Security Committee, the Minister of the Interior, the General Prosecutor. Moreover, all of them carry out instructions and report to Nursultan Nazarbayev (Chairman of the Security Council and First President of Kazakhstan) and Kassym-Jomart Tokayev (President of Kazakhstan). As former Interior Minister Kalmukhanbet Kasymov said, “as we are ordered, so we work”.

Not being formally a representative of the executive or legislative power, Nursultan Nazarbayev has levers of influence and controls the activities of all key government bodies, including control over the heads of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the General Prosecutor’s Office and the NSC.

Nazarbayev Nursultan Abishevich

Full Legal Name of Perpetrator: Nazarbayev Nursultan Abishevich

Country: Kazakhstan

Title or Position: Lifetime Chairman of the Kazakhstan Security Council. 10 December 1991 – 20 March 2019 — President of Kazakhstan. 24 April 1990 – 10 December 1991 — President of the Kazakh SSR. From 20 July 2000 to the present time — First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Yelbasy). February 1990 – April 1990 — Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR. 1990-1991 — Member of the USSR Federation Council. 1989 – January 1992 — People’s Deputy of the USSR. June 1989 – August 1991 — First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan.

Date of birth: 6 July 1940

Other Known Personal Identifiers: legal address of the Office of the First President of Kazakhstan: Republic of Kazakhstan, 010000, Astana city, Yesil district, 36 street, building 10. Has been awarded with many state awards.

Nursultan Nazarbayev’s role in the organisational structure of the institution and his authority over the final perpetrators of gross human rights violations

In March 2019, Nursultan Nazarbayev, who had been a President for 30 years, announced his resignation. An extraordinary presidential election was held on 9 June 2019, in which Nazarbayev’s successor, Kassym-Jomart Tokayev, was expected to win. The OSCE stated that there were systemic violations in the elections, but the newly elected President called the OSCE conclusions “politically biased”.

Tokayev is a person from the system who guaranteed the status quo for the ruling elites. “Three and a half years ago, Nursultan Nazarbayev told me that “you will be the next President”. It’s a matter of time. We were choosing the moment” – Tokayev said in an interview after the election. Kassym-Jomart Tokayev, having become a President, continues Nazarbayev’s policy and strengthens the authoritarian regime.

Over the past few years, the configuration of power in the state has been changed so that for some time the new President will only be the second most influential figure in the state. After stepping down as President, Nursultan Nazarbayev has remained a key figure in the power system in Kazakhstan. Nazarbayev was given the right to govern the country for life as President of the Security Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Nursultan Nazarbayev was awarded the title of “The First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan – Leader of the Nation” (Yelbasy) by a special Constitutional Act, which was adopted in 2000:

  • The law exempts Nazarbayev from criminal liability, determines the inviolability of his family’s property, gives instructions to erect monuments in his honour and imposes severe punishment for insulting his honour. It is not allowed to obstruct the lawful activities of the First President.
  • According to the Constitutional Law, initiatives on the main directions of foreign and domestic policy are coordinated with Nazarbayev.
  • In addition, Nazarbayev has de facto control over Parliament. He also leads the Nur Otan Party, which has an absolute majority of seats in the lower house of parliament, the Mazhilis (84 out of 107). Moreover, the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan (an advisory body to the President), which Nazarbayev heads for life, elects 9 members of the Mazhilis.
  • Nazarbayev (Yelbasy) is a member of the Constitutional Council and heads the Council of Kazakhstan. The Security Council, which Nazarbayev heads for life, is a key position he has occupied since he stepped down as President.

 The Security Council coordinates the implementation of a unified state policy in the field of national security and defence “in order to preserve domestic political stability and protect the constitutional system”. Until 2018, the Security Council had a consultative and advisory role. However, in June 2018, the Security Council Act was adopted, which significantly empowered this body. The Council has now been granted constitutional status and has been given broad supervisory powers over all public bodies.

  • The Council coordinates the activities of state security agencies and central and local executive bodies, as well as analysing draft laws and controlling the implementation of regulatory documents.
  • The Council is engaged in the discussion of candidates recommended for appointment as heads of state bodiessubordinate and accountable to the President (including the heads of the NSC, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Prosecutor’s Office).
  • The Council hears annual reports of the Government and the heads of state bodies.
  • Government bodies and officials of Kazakhstan are legally obligated to execute decisions taken by the Security Council or by the Chairman of the Security Council.

Information about the assets of Nursultan Nazarbayev and his family

Having kept the state apparatus of Kazakhstan under his control for 30 years, Nursultan Nazarbayev has become one of the richest people in the world. According to various estimates, the wealth of the First President of Kazakhstan ranges from US$1.1 billion to over US$100 billion. From time to time, information about Nazarbayev and his family’s multi-million-dollar assets, elite real estate and luxury goods appears in the media.

According to British law enforcement agencies, part of Nazarbayev’s wealth was obtained by laundering the funds of the former son-in-law of the First President, Rakhat Aliyev, who in the aftermath of the war fell into disgrace with Nazarbayev. Aliyev died under mysterious circumstances in an Austrian prison in 2015. According to the British investigation, Aliyev “was involved in serious crimes while working in the civil service and afterwards”, and his criminal proceeds became the source of funds for a number of offshore companies through which Nazarbayev’s foreign real estate was acquired. Thus, British investigators found that Nursultan Nazarbayev’s family was involved in the laundering of illegal funds.

According to the British newspaper Metro, in 2008, Nazarbayev acquired one of the most expensive mansions in the UK at a cost of about US$65 millions. At the same time, the property is in abandoned condition.

In May 2019, the High Court of London froze the property of Nazarbayev’s eldest daughter Dariga Nazarbayeva and his grandson Nurali Aliyev The reason for this was an investigation by the British National Crime Agency, which suspected the Nazarbayev’s family of buying real estate with money obtained through criminal activity. British law enforcement agencies spotted 2 mansions and 2 flats of the First President’s family purchased in 2008 and 2010. The total value of the property is about US$101 millions. In April 2020, Nazarbayev managed to obtain the cancellation of the seizure of his real estate.

Forbes Magazine estimates Dariga Nazarbayeva’s wealth at US$595 millions, which makes her one of the richest people in Kazakhstan. Nazarbayev’s grandson Nurali Aliyev is also one of the richest people in Kazakhstan. Forbes estimates his wealth at US$219 millions.

The middle daughter of Nursultan Nazarbayev, Dinara, together with her husband Timur Kulibayev, owns Bellerive Castle in Switzerland. According to local media, the value of the property is about US$63 millions. In addition, Nazarbayev’s family owns real estate in Geneva worth about US$75 millions. Forbes magazine estimates that the total wealth of Nazarbayev’s daughter and her husband is US$6.2 billion.

According to media reports, Nazarbayev’s younger brother Bolat owns a fortune of US$15 billion, which he received from the First President. According to the New York Observer, in 2008, Bolat Nazarbayev purchased a flat in New York for US$20 millions with an area of 360 square meters. In the process of divorce, he gave his ex-wife Maira Kurmangalieva a house in New Jersey and jewellery valued at US$75 millions, as his lawyers claimed. In addition, Bolat Nazarbayev’s youngest wife wears jewellery worth hundreds of thousands of dollars [11], [12]. Photos and videos of Bolat Nazarbayev’s luxurious family celebrations often appear on the network, which involve helicopters and police escorts, and cars are presented to participants of the celebration.

According to media reports, in 2015, Nursultan Nazarbayev’s nephew, Nurbol Nazarbayev, presented his father with a hotel and restaurant complex worth US$3.5 millions, while working in public service.

Massimov Karim Kazhimkanovich 

Full Legal Name of Perpetrator: Massimov Karim Kazhimkanovich 

Country: Republic of Kazakhstan

Title or Position: Since 8 September 2016 – present — Chairman of the National Security Committee of Kazakhstan. 2 April 2014 – 8 September 2016 — Prime Minister of Kazakhstan. 2012 – 2014 — Head of the Presidential Administration of Kazakhstan. 2007 – 2012 — Prime Minister of Kazakhstan. 2006 – 2007 — Deputy Prime Minister of Kazakhstan. April 2006 – October 2006 — Minister of Economy and Budget Planning of Kazakhstan. 2003– 2006 — Assistant to the President of Kazakhstan. 2001 – 2003 — Deputy Prime Minister of Kazakhstan. 2000 – 2001 — Minister of Transport and Communications of Kazakhstan. 1997 – 2000 — Chairman of the Board of the “People’s Savings Bank of Kazakhstan”.

Date of Birth: 15 June 1965

Other Known Personal Identifiers: Legal address of the National Security Committee: 010000, Republic of Kazakhstan, Astana, 20 Syganak Street. Awarded with several state awards. On 18 March 2019, the President of Kazakhstan awarded him the rank of Major General of National Security. In May 2020, Massimov was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant General of National Security.

Karim Massimov’s role in the organisational structure of the institution and his authority over the final perpetrators of gross human rights violations

The work of the National Security Committee (NSC) is defined by a strict hierarchy and centralisation in decision-making. The work of the NSC is regulated by the Law on National Security Bodies and the Presidential Decree on Approval of the Regulations on the National Security Committee.

  • According to the legislation, the NSC manages a unified system of national security bodies and in turn reports to the President of Kazakhstan. The NSC guides, coordinates and harmonises the actions of its territorial bodies and determines how they interact, encouraging or punishing local employees.
  • Its extensive powers allow the NSC to intervene in various areas of society and the state. In particular, the NSC “facilitates the work” (in fact, participates in the work) of law enforcement agencies and other state bodies in cases which, according to the NSC, are related to national security or national interests of the state. The U.S. Department of State has noted the growing influence of the NSC on various aspects of life in Kazakhstan, as well as reports of abuse by the NSC.
  • Article 12 of the Regulation on the NSC provides, in particular, the following functions of the NSC: “assisting state bodies in advancing national interests”, “assisting” law enforcement agencies in “ensuring public safety, legality” and “solving other tasks assigned to them”, investigating criminal cases which are under the authority of the NSC and implementing measures to counter terrorism and extremism. The NSC has its own detention facilities. The NSC can also block the work of social networks and access to Internet resources without a court decision.
  • The Chairman of the NSC, a position held by Massimov since September of 2016, is appointed by the President. He is vested with full authority in the institution: he directs all activities of the NSC and controls the security officers. Article 4 of the Law on NSC establishes “single authority” as one of the basic principles of the activities of the national security institutions. Moreover, paragraph 14 of the Regulation on the NSC states that the Chairman of the NSC “shall bear personal responsibility for the performance of the tasks and functions of the National Security Committee”. He is also personally responsible for any cases of corruption in the national security bodies (paragraph 16 of the Regulation on the NSC).
  • The Chairman of the NSC has broad powers, in particular he “organizes the work of the NSC”, “approves the structure and personnel of the NSC units”, “appoints and dismisses the heads of the NSC units” and imposes disciplinary sanctions on NSC officers. In addition, the Chairman of the NSC “issues regulations governing the activities of national security bodies”, including the most detailed technical aspects of the activities, such as “rules for the use of seals” or “descriptions of employee IDs”.
  • Thus, all key decisions in the NSC are made upon agreement and approval with Chairman Massimov. Therefore, as the NSC Chairman, Massimov knew or should have known about the human rights abuses committed by the NSC and failed to take measures to stop violations and punish those responsible. The pattern and practice of human rights abuses are part and parcel of the NSC’s entire system, and those responsible for violations go unpunished.
  • One of the real functions of the NSC is to fight against critics and political opponents of the authorities. Both from the institutional point of view and from the point of view of actual practice, the Chairman of the NSC is responsible for systematic violations by the NSC.
  • During the state of emergency and in the conditions of the economic crisis, the budget of the National Security Committee was increased by 52 billion tenge (116 million euro). At the same time, the budget for the health care system, which, in such difficult times, fulfils the function of the common public good, was increased only by 78 billion tenge (170 million euro). On 5 July 2020, the authorities reported that they had additionally allocated 18.1 billion tenge (approx. 40 million euro) to fight the Coronavirus epidemic, which is almost three times less than the amount allocated for additional NSC funding.

Information on the assets of Karim Massimov and his family

Substantiated information about Massimov’s assets is known mainly from journalistic investigations conducted on the basis of the so-called “KazakhLeaks”. In August 2014, on the portal kazaword.wordpress.com, unknown persons began to index and publish links to stolen correspondence of senior Kazakhstani officials and their representatives. The Kazakhstani authorities declared that email accounts of government officials had been hacked.

These documents received broad reverberation among the European media (Le TempsMediapartThe Financial TimesLe Nouvel ObservateurAtlantico NZZ, Yahoo France, L’EspressoLa ProvenceEl Pais) and human rights organisations (the Moscow Helsinki Group, the Russian Historical, Educational and Human Rights Society ‘Memorial’, the All-Russian Movement ‘For Human Rights’ and others).

Referring to the published correspondence, European and Kazakhstani media conducted journalistic investigations. Society was soon informed of incidents of corruption and abuse of power among senior officials of Kazakhstan. In particular, the case includes correspondence between Karim Massimov (then Prime Minister of Kazakhstan) and other persons with Talant Muratbayev, Massimov’s assistant.

In September 2020, it became known that the British Serious Fraud Office has started an investigation based on public correspondence. According to the emails of Massimov’s assistant, in 2011 the British mining group “Kazakhmys” provided Massimov’s family with an expensive holiday in Paris, including a private jet, accommodation and entertainment. The cost of this trip is estimated at US$100,000. British investigators believe that this was a way for the company to corruptly promote its business interests.

Moreover, according to the correspondence, in March 2012, Talant Muratbayev received a letter requesting the arrangement of Massimov’s meeting with representatives of the American oil company Occidental Petroleum regarding investments in the Zhanaozen oil fields. In addition, some investigations point to information that Prime Minister Massimov received 12 million euro for Kazakhstan’s deal with the European company Eurocopter for the supply of French helicopters.

In August 2014, an invoice from the Cleveland Clinic was sent to Massimov’s assistant for services in the amount of US$31,328.38. The recipient of medical services was “Mister X”, but there is a high probability that it was Massimov.

Some media reported that Massimov had bought real estate for his daughter in Paris and that he was willing to buy an apartment for US$7.5 millions in Singapore [13], [14]. In 2008, Massimov confirmed to the U.S. ambassador the information published in an article in the Wall Street Journal that he co-owns a company in Singapore.

It was widely reported that in 2012, Massimov had exported three of Napoleon Bonaparte’s letters from France, which cost the Prime Minister 97,500 euro paid in cash. Mass media published the airline tickets of Massimov’s wife and children, according to which they often flew (and probably continue to fly) to the US in first class, and the price of a ticket for one family member is more than US$15 thousands.

On 01 October 2020, the Financial Times published an investigation into the mysterious deaths of former top managers of Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation (ENRC), a large metallurgical and mining holding that is developing deposits in Kazakhstan. ENRC was founded by three billionaires from Kazakhstan – Alexander Mashkevich, Alidzhan Ibragimov and Patokh Shodiyev. They became powerful during the reign of Nursultan Nazarbayev.

For 7 years, the British authorities have been investigating facts that may indicate extensive corruption and fraud within ENRC Holding related to the acquisition of the deposits. In recent years, several former top managers of the holding who may have had information about corruption and who were considered potential witnesses by the British investigation have died in unclear circumstances. Their deaths show signs of murder. As the FT notes, the three founding oligarchs of the holding deny any allegations of corruption or death.

In 2007, when Karim Massimov was Prime Minister, the Kazakhstani government owned 24.8% of the ENRC holding. Alexander Mashkevich participated in the work meetings of Karim Massimov and asked the then Prime Minister to draw attention to tariff policy issues within the Eurasian Economic Union, on which ENRC Holding also depended.

Abish Samat Satybaldyuly

Full Legal Name of Perpetrator: Abish Samat Satybaldyuly

Country: Kazakhstan

Position: First Deputy Chairman of the National Security Committee since 25 December 2015 to the present time. March 2013 – 25 December 2015 — Deputy Chairman of the National Security Committee. November 2011 – March 2013 — Head of Department of the National Security Committee in Nur-Sultan. January 2010 – November 2011 — Head of HR Department of the National Security Committee. October 2008 – January 2010 — Executive Secretary of the Ministry of Justice of Kazakhstan. 2006 – 2008 — Deputy Chairman, Chairman of the Registration Service Committee of the Ministry of Justice. 2000 – 2006 — Service in officers positions in the bodies of the National Security Committee.

Date of birth: 20 August 1978

Other data: the legal address of the National Security Committee: 010000, Republic of Kazakhstan, Nur-Sultan, 20 Siganak Street, 20. On 6 May 2017, he was awarded by the President of Kazakhstan a special title of Lieutenant General of the National Security Committee.

Samat Abish’s role in the organisational structure of the institution, as well as his authority over the final perpetrators of gross human rights violations

  • According to legislation, the First Deputy Chairman of the NSC is appointed by the President of Kazakhstan and reports directly to the NSC Chairman. The First Deputy is the second most important person in the institution and performs all functions assigned to the Chairman of the NSC during his absence. According to our information, as of September 2020, due to Karim Massimov’s illness, the NSC is actually under the control of Samat Abish.
  • In addition to the official position of First Deputy Chairman of the NSC, Samat Abish is a nephew of Nursultan Nazarbayev (son of Nazarbayev’s younger brother) and one of the most influential people in Kazakhstan. According to our information, since February 2020, it is Abish who has been in charge of the political persecution of civil society activists and has given orders regarding arbitrary detention of activists by force, exertion of torture and ill-treatment against them.  

Full Legal Name of the Perpetrator: Turgumbayev Yerlan Zamanbekovich

Turgumbayev Yerlan Zamanbekovich

Country: Kazakhstan

Position: Minister of Internal Affairs of Kazakhstan since 12 February 2019 to the present time. December 2012 – February 2019 — Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs. 31 July 2006 – December 2012 — Head of the Department of Internal Affairs of Almaty. May 2006 – 31 July 2006 — Chairman of the Investigation Committee of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. April 2003 – May 2006 — Head of Internal Affairs Department of North-Kazakhstan region. September 2002 – April 2003 — Head of Criminal Police Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. January 2001 – February 2002 — Managing director of NAC Kazatomprom JSC. 1984 – 2002 — work in bodies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the RK.

Date of birth: 14 August 1962

Other data: Legal address of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan 010000, Nur-Sultan, Tauelsizdik Avenue, 1. Has been awarded several state awards. On 6 May 2019 was awarded the special title of Police Lieutenant General by the President of Kazakhstan.

Yerlan Turgumbayev’s role in the organisational structure of the institution and his authority over the final perpetrators of gross human rights violations

  • In Kazakhstan, pre-trial detention facilities and prisons are under the control of the Committee of criminal-executive system (CCES). The police and the CCES are part of a unified system of internal affairs bodies. In 2011, by his decree, the President of Kazakhstan transferred the detention facilities and prisons from the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Justice to the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Human rights defenders sharply criticised the decision which made the penitentiary system even more closed to observers and vulnerable to violations. The UN Committee against Torture and the UN Human Rights Committee have for several years emphasised their recommendation that pre-trial detention facilities and prisons be transferred back to the Ministry of Justice, but the authorities have ignored this recommendation.
  • In response to comments from the UN Human Rights Committee, Kazakhstan indicated that the Ministry of Internal Affairs is responsible for implementing the UN Convention against Torture. The Ministry of Internal Affairs conducts a preliminary investigation into allegations of torture, and “in case of partiality and red tape” further investigation is entrusted to special prosecutors, the authorities say.
  • In its reports, the U.S. Department of State referred to reports of torture and abuse in police stations, pre-trial detention facilities and prisons, which is the Ministry of Internal Affairs’ area of responsibility.
  • The Law “On Bodies of Internal Affairs” of Kazakhstan establishes a strong hierarchy in decision-making in this system. The minister manages the system of internal affairs bodies, appoints employees to positions, imposes disciplinary sanctions on them, controls their work, including the work of the head of the CCES and his deputies (Article 9 of the Law ‘On Internal Affairs Bodies’). Article 18 of the Regulation “On the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Kazakhstan” provides that the Minister of Internal Affairs “shall bear personal responsibility for the performance of the tasks and functions of the Ministry”.
  • All key decisions in internal affairs bodies are made under the direction of the Minister. Therefore, the Minister of the Interior, as a senior offending official, is aware of cases of systematic gross violations by representatives of the Ministry of the Interior and, moreover, leads these processes. Therefore, the Minister of the Interior is responsible for the fabrication of politically motivated cases, mass arbitrary detentions and arrests, political killings as well as torture, ill-treatment in pre-trial detention facilities and prisons.

Nurdauletov Gizat Daurenbekovich


Full Legal Name of the Perpetrator:
 Nurdauletov Gizat Daurenbekovich

Country: Kazakhstan

Position: General Prosecutor of Kazakhstan since 18 March 2019 to the present time. July 2017 – March 2019 — First Deputy of the General Prosecutor. 2007 – July 2017 — Head of Department of the National Security Committee of the Almaty Region. 1997 – 2007 — work in the bodies of the National Security Committee of Kazakhstan. 1996 – 1997 — work in the bodies of the State Investigative Committee of Kazakhstan. 1990 – 1996 — work in the bodies of the Prosecutor’s Office.

Date of birth: 11 June 1964

Passport number: N09923709

ID card: 026975607

Address: Nur-Sultan, Kerey Zhanibek Khandar St., 14/2, apt. 264

Other data: the legal address of the General Prosecutor’s Office: 010000, Republic of Kazakhstan, Nur-Sultan city, Mangilik, 14. On 6 May 2019 was awarded the title of State Counsellor of Justice of the 2nd class.

Gizat Nurdauletov’s role in the organisation of the institution and his authority over the final perpetrators of gross human rights violations

  • According to the law on the Prosecutor’s Office [Hereinafter we refer to the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan No. 81-VI dated 30 June 2017 “On the Prosecutor’s Office”], the department supervises the observance of legality in Kazakhstan, is responsible for criminal prosecution and represents the interests of the state in court. Also, in accordance with Article 4 of the above-mentioned law, the Prosecutor’s Office coordinates the activities of law enforcement and other state bodies in ensuring legality, law and order and combating crime.
  • The Public Prosecutor’s Office is a centralised body, which reports to the General Prosecutor. The Prosecutor’s Office has a strict power hierarchy established by legislation. There is a strict subordination of subordinate prosecutors to their superiors in the Prosecutor’s Office. The General Prosecutor’s Office, Regional Prosecutor’s Offices, District Prosecutor’s Offices, City Prosecutor’s Offices, Inter-Regional Prosecutor’s Offices and Specialized Prosecutor’s Offices form a unified system of the Prosecutor’s Office of Kazakhstan. The heads of all prosecution bodies are subordinate to the General Prosecutor’s Office.
  • The General Prosecutor is responsible for the entire prosecution system in the state and makes all key decisions within the agency, managing the activities of subordinate prosecution offices. The General Prosecutor issues orders and instructions that are mandatory for all employees of the prosecution service; he appoints and dismisses prosecutors of regions, districts and heads of institutions.
  • The General Prosecutor is appointed and dismissed by the President and reports to the President. In accordance with Article 37 of the Law on the Procurator General’s Office, the General Prosecutor exercises supreme supervision over the observance of legality in Kazakhstan. Thus, the General Prosecutor bears personal responsibility for gross violations of human rights in the country: arbitrary detention, persecution of participants in peaceful actions, restrictions on freedom of speech and torture.

According to Article 11 of the Act, the Prosecutor’s Office supervises the observance of legality during pre-trial investigation. Therefore, the General Prosecutor bears personal responsibility for fabricating politically motivated cases against participants in peaceful protests, opposition politicians, and activists. Samat Abish, Yerlan Turgumbayev and Gizat Nurdauletov are non-public personalities. There is no information about their assets in public sources. The information that is publicly available is limited to a meagre biographical summary of what state position they occupied and when. However, these individuals are extremely influential and close to President Tokayev and Yelbasy Nazarbayev (moreover, Samat Abish is a member of Nazarbayev’s family, the wealthiest in the country). With this in mind, there is every reason to believe that Abish, Turgumbayev and Nurdauletov have high financial security. This means that they or their families may have assets or connections (including travel) in the EU and the USA.

4. Political killing of Dulat Agadil

Dulat Agadil was a well-known opposition activist and blogger who lived in Talapker village near Nur-Sultan (Astana). Agadil was one of the most famous protest leaders in Kazakhstan (especially in the Kazakh-speaking environment).  He took part in rallies and protests of the opposition movements, DCK and “Koshe Partiyasy”, and was one of the initiators of the opposition movement “Koshe Partiyasy”. He was 43 years old and the father of six children.

Dulat Agadil

On the evening of 24 February 2020, Dulat Agadil was detained and placed in a pre-trial detention facility, and on the morning of 25 February 2020, the authorities announced that the activist ‘died of heart failure’. Agadil’s relatives reported that he did not complain of heart problems and did not have bad habits. Rather, they emphasised that Dulat was killed, and that his death was the result of torture and ill-treatment by law enforcement bodies. Dulat Agadil’s family members gave to the Open Dialogue Foundation a power of attorney to protect their interests in the case of the death of the activist.

The authors of the report, representatives of civil society in Kazakhstan, as well as Dulat Agadil’s family members consider his death a political killing:

  • his death in the pre-trial detention facility occurred suddenly following his detention the previous night;
  • family members and activists took a video-recording of multiple bruises and abrasions on the body of Dulat Agadil, which indicates the use of torture and ill-treatment against him;
  • the video footage showing the last hours of Dulat Agadil’s life in the pre-trial detention facility proves that the employees of the detention facility deliberately failed to provide him with medical assistance;
  • in the last two years before his death, Dulat Agadil was systematically persecuted for political reasons. He was one of the initiators of the creation of the “Koshe Partiyasy” movement.

By political killing, we mean the act of killing a civil society or political figure in order to intimidate members of a social group (for example, the political opposition) of which he is a part, as well as with the aim of taking revenge for his civil society or political activities.

Political killing is the result of systematic political persecution and oppressive policies of the authoritarian state against representatives of civil society and the opposition. Moreover, while an authoritarian state can simulate an investigation into a political killing, due to the fact that law enforcement and judicial authorities are controlled, such an investigation cannot be independent and objective.

Agadil’s statements in defence of victims of repression in Xinjiang Province, China

From 2018, Agadil participated in anti-government rallies and criticised the authorities on social media. He also collected and transmitted information to human rights defenders about the arbitrarily detained participants of peaceful protests.

Agadil publicly defended thousands of Kazakhs who have been victims of repression in China’s Xinjiang province and also criticised China’s economic expansion in Kazakhstan. In particular, Agadil actively defended Murager Alimuly and Kaster Musakhanuly – asylum seekers, ethnic Kazakhs who fled Xinjiang. In October 2019, they illegally crossed the border into Kazakhstan and asked for political asylum. On 14 October 2019 they held a press conference where Musakhanuly noted that he had been held for over 4 years in a political reformation camp where he was tortured. Earlier the Kazakhstani Minister of Foreign Affairs stated that there were “no ethnic Kazakhs” in these camps. Immediately after the press conference Alimuly and Musakhanuly were detained by the special services and sent to the pre-trial detention facility.

Dulat Agadil, together with his lawyer, participated in the investigation to prevent the secret illegal transfer of Alimuly and Musakhanuly to China. On 21 January 2020, the court sentenced asylum seekers to one year in prison without deportation to China. On 17 October 2020 an unprecedented event was announced: they received refugee status. This was made possible by publicity and public pressure.

In October 2019, Agadil statedI warn you once again, if you don’t give these guys (Kaster Musakhanuly and Murager Alimuly) citizenship, then blame yourself. I will personally call on people to the Akorda building, even if I am arrested! Thank you!”. In his video message dated 17 October 2019, Agadil noted«What is happening now in Chinese concentration camps will also come to us within 7-8 years. I declare this with full responsibility. If I get arrested for saying these words, then let me say it. I am not the only one who is talking about this. The Kazakh people, America, Europe, the whole world is talking about it. …I am a person who goes out [to protest] and is 100% aware of all this. They can also kill me. They can beat me up. They can also stab me. If all this happens, only our security services will do it. Nobody else will do it”.

Dulat Agadil’s persecution history

In response to his human rights and social activities, Agadil was systematically subjected to detention and administrative arrests. In June 2019, Agadil was beaten in the police department — his arm was dislocated and had to be put in a plaster cast. There is reason to believe that due to his opposition activities, Agadil, like hundreds of other activists in Kazakhstan, was constantly under the surveillance of the special services.

In the period between August and December 2019, Agadil spent more than 80 days in detention, having been convicted of “participation in unauthorised rallies” (Article 488 of the Code of Administrative Procedure (CAP)), “disobedience to a police officer” (Article 667 of the CAP) and “contempt of court” (Article 653 of the CAP). In particular, Agadil was accused of comparing the court and the judicial system to clowns in a circus on 4 November 2019 when leaving the courtroom. Subsequently, after the death of Dulat Agadil, files of the administrative cases in which he was involved, disappeared from the public domain.

Agadil has previously expressed fears that his life would be in danger due to political prosecution. On 23 October 2019, Dulat Agadil filed a statement to the prosecutor’s office of the Tselinograd district, in which he said that he was going on an indefinite hunger strike due to the fact that he was being tried for falsified articles and prosecuted for his views. Agadil noted in his statement that if something happens to him, the prosecutor of the Tselinograd district, Askar Zharylgapuly, the head of the District Department of Internal Affairs, Yerlan Akbarov, prosecutor Ashirbekov B.S., judge Dinara Merzadinova, district akim Malgadzar Tatkeyev, police inspector Medet Zhuparbayev and operative investigator Zharas Kaparov should be blamed for this.

In January 2020, Agadil faced criminal charges of “insulting a judge” (Article 410 of the Criminal Code (CC)) and “libel against a prosecutor” (Article 411 of the CC). The criminal case was initiated by the police department of the Tselinograd District in connection with an incident that occurred on 17 October 2019. During the announcement of the verdict in one of the administrative cases against Agadil, the activist shouted to Judge Dinara Merzadinova“You better take off your robe and go milk the cow’. Agadil’s words were associated with the statement of Nursultan Nazarbayev, who advised Kazakhstanis seeking social assistance from the state to “rely on themselves” and, for example, “get two cows”[1]. Agadil also allegedly shouted insulting words at Prosecutor B. AshirbekovAlimkhan Sagadiyev, an investigator of the Tselinograd District Police Department, conducted the pre-trial investigation of the criminal case.

Counsel Galym Nurpeisov, as well as the mother and wife of Dulat Agadil, state that the case of “insulting a judge and defamation against a prosecutor”, initiated against Dulat Agadil was investigated in violation of the norms of the Code of Criminal Procedure. In particular, it was through violations of the law that evidence in a criminal case was obtained and a linguistic examination of Dulat Agadil’s statements in court were carried out. Here, the activist wasn’t provided with an opportunity to become familiarised with the decision on the appointment of an expert witness, to challenge the expert and apply for the appointment of the persons indicated by him as experts, or to address the expert with additional questions.

On 26 January 2020, a preventive measure was applied against Agadil in the form of a ban on leaving the city. However, due to the absence of Dulat Agadil, he had no knowledge about the decision. On 29 January 2020, Agadil was put on the wanted list. On 30 January 2020, the activist was detained in the city of Aktobe and informed about the ban on leaving the city. According to the criminal case file, Agadil refused to familiarise himself with the decision. However, his relatives doubt that the police informed him of the decision in the first place.

On 11 February 2020, in connection with the alleged “evasion of investigative actions”, Judge of the Tselinograd District Court Zhanat Kulataevich Temirov sanctioned the change in the preventive measure from a ban on leaving the city to a detention. At the same time, the judge’s decision did not specify the period of detention. According to Kazakhstan’s legislation, a preventive measure in the form of detention is applied to a person suspected of committing a crime which is punishable with imprisonment for a term of at least five years. Moreover, only in exceptional cases can a suspect be taken into custody if the law provides for a punishment in the form of imprisonment for less than five years. Based on the criminal charges brought against Agadil, he was facing at most two years’ imprisonment.

According to Kazakhstani activists and human rights defenders, Dulat Agadil was supposed to take part in an informal meeting with members of the European Parliament, who were on a visit to Nur-Sultan on 25-27 February, 2020.

Detention at night and death in the detention facility

On 24 February 2020, at about 8:30 p.m., policemen in civilian clothes detained Agadil at his home. The detention was carried out by officers of the Tselinograd District Police Department Darkhan Baukayev, Kuandyk Apasov, Khangeldy Seidaly, Zharas Kapparov and investigator Alimkhan Sagadiyev. They arrived at Dulat Agadil’s house in an ambulance and fraudulently entered the house. Dulat Agadil’s son Zhanbolat recorded the developments on his phone. Police officer Kapparov Zharas hit Zhanbolat on the arm, after which the phone fell out of his hands.

Notably, during the arrest, one of the policemen told Agadil that it makes no sense for him to take his personal belongings to the pre-trial detention facility, as they “will be of no use to him”. Agadil was handcuffed and taken away in a car with civilian plate numbers.

According to the criminal case file regarding Agadil’s death, which was investigated by the Office of Special Prosecutors, at the time of the arrest, the activist was allegedly in a state of alcoholic intoxication. Therefore, after his arrest, at about 9:30 p.m., he was taken for examination to the Tselinograd District Outpatients’ Clinic (Tselinograd District, Akmol village, Microdistrict 3, Building 1A), where the narcologist K. Usenov determined that Dulat Agadil was “in the medium degree of alcoholic intoxication”. After that, he was taken to the police department of the Tselinograd District (Tselinograd District, Akmol village, 1A Lineinaya Street) to draw up procedural documents on the detention.

Dulat Agadil’s mother Gulbarash Zholmukhambetova, his wife Gulnar Kasymkhanova and son Nurbolat Agadilov insist that the accusations of alcohol intoxication are false, as Dulat did not drink alcohol and did not smoke.

According to the criminal case file, at approx. 10:00 p.m., Dulat Agadil was taken out of the police department and at approx. 11:00 p.m. he was brought to the Institute of Forensic Examination in Nur-Sultan (Nur-Sultan, 7 Gabiden Mustafin Street). In the Institute, it was determined that Dulat Agadil had two abrasions around ​​the left forearm and right lower leg, which were allegedly formed three to five days before the examination. It is noteworthy that at the time of the examination, the escort Mukhtar Kashkepov was with Dulat Agadil, and in his testimony, he stated that he had not noticed any “visible injuries” on Agadil’s body.

In the testimony of the escort, it is reported that at about 11:50 p.m. he transferred Dulat Agadil back to the detention facility in Nur-Sultan (Institution EC-166/1 of the Department of the Penitentiary System of Nur-Sultan at Nur-Sultan, Baikonyr District , 30/1 Alash Shosse).

According to the criminal case file, at 00:25 a.m. on 25 February 2020, the detainee was placed in a cell of the quarantine department, as in the morning he was supposed to be taken to court for “consideration of the justification for applying a preventive measure against him”. In addition to Agadil, four more people were kept in the cell.

Counsel Galym Nurpeisov and Dulat Agadil’s relatives insist that after the arrest, Agadil should have been placed in the temporary detention facility in the Talapker settlement, rather than in the detention facility in Nur-Sultan. According to Art. 148, section 4 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, in cases of detention, the suspect must be brought to the investigating judge for consideration of the validity of the application of the previously chosen preventive measure. However, Agadil was not taken to the judge, but immediately placed in a pre-trial detention facility. Whereas, according to the legislation of Kazakhstan, a suspect can only be held in a temporary detention facility in the event that the case must be considered by the court.

According to the official version, at 7:48 a.m. Dulat Agadil’s health deteriorated and an ambulance was called for him. The ambulance arrived at 08:16 a.m. and pronounced Dulat Agadil dead.

It is noteworthy that Head of the Internal Security Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Arman Sadanov and Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs Arystangani Zapparov officially presented different versions, from which it is not clear whether Agadil died before or after the arrival of the ambulance. According to Sadanov, at approx. 7:15 a.m. Agadil felt unwell, and an ambulance was called for him which tried to provide him with first aid. An ambulance arrived at 8:15 a.m., and after 5-10 minutes, death was pronounced. Zapparov stated, in turn, that after 7:00 a.m. Agadil felt unwell and fainted. They tried to give him first aid, “but by the arrival of the ambulance, Agadil was already dead”.

On 24 February 2020, the police of the Baikonyr District of Nur-Sultan initiated a pre-trial investigation into the death of Dulat Agadil. On the same day, the case was transferred for investigation to the Investigative Operations Group under the leadership of the special prosecutor of the Prosecutor’s Office of Nur-Sultan Nuralan Nakishev.

Recordings from CCTV cameras in the detention facility

It was only on 29 May 2020, three months after Agadil’s death, that his mother, widow and counsel Galym Nurpeisov managed to become familiarised with the criminal case file and the recordings from CCTV cameras in the pre-trial detention facility.

The footage shows the developments from 6:30 a.m. to 8:00 a.m. on 25 February 2020. At the same time, “for reasons unknown to investigators”, the recording covering the period between midnight and 6:30 a.m. on February 25, 2020 “was not found”.

As stated by Counsel Nurpeisov, the video recordings confirmed that in the morning Agadil had visible signs of a serious deterioration in his health: it was difficult for him to get out of bed, he could hardly move, he staggered. The detention facility officers entered the cell at least three times. They forced Dulat out of bed and deliberately ignored his poor health condition. No medical doctors were called. Moreover, the detention facility officers further worsened Agadil’s situation by not allowing him to lie on the bed. They also pulled his hands off the support when he was trying to hold onto the door near the toilet. As a result, Dulat Agadil fell to the floor and was lying motionless in the middle of the cell for 20 minutes. All this time, the employees of the pre-trial detention facility did nothing, stepping over Agadil who was lying on the cell floor, unable to move.

Only after 20 minutes did the prison officer order Agadil’s fellow inmates to pick him up, and then called the administration. After that, the administration of the pre-trial detention facility called an ambulance, but, apparently, it was already too late. On 31 May, 2020, Dulat Agadil’s counsel and relatives filed a complaint about the negligence of the prison staff, which led to the death of the activist.

According to the testimony of the prison guard M. Sattayev, at approx. 8:00 a.m., the controller D. Anarbayev reported that Dulat Agadil felt unwell and an ambulance should be called. Sattayev called an ambulance and went to the cell where Agadil was “unconscious”. The detention facility staff performed resuscitation actions (heart massage), which did not bring any results.

On 1 June, 2020, special prosecutor N.S. Nakishev issued a ruling by which he granted the request for the provision of copies of the footage from the surveillance cameras in the pre-trial detention facility to Dulat Agadil’s counsel and relatives. Nakishev also recommended purchasing a hard disk due to the huge amount of information. However, on 3 June 2020, when Agadil’s counsel and relatives came to the prosecutor’s office to receive the copies, they were handed a decision to revoke the order to provide the copies. The refusal decision was signed by First Deputy Prosecutor of Nur-Sultan Berik Abilov. The refusal to provide copies of the footage was justified by the fact that they could be published in the media, which would violate the privacy of other arrested persons who are captured in the footage.

However, it is obvious that this is only a pretext for refusal, and the prosecutor’s office is doing everything in its power to prevent the distribution of the footage from the pre-trial detention facility, which indicates that Dulat Agadil was not provided with medical assistance when he was dying. At the same time, the counsel and relatives have not yet been shown the video footage from the police department, where Agadil was taken before being placed in the pre-trial detention facility.

Requirements to ensure independence during autopsy and pressure on the counsels of Dulat Agadil’s family

Four counsels were involved in the case regarding Dulat Agadil. Counsel Daniyar Aktanov defended the interests of the activist in the case of “insulting a judge and defamation against a prosecutor.” However, at the time of Agadil’s detention, Aktanov did not come to assist the activist and did not answer phone calls. Because of this, the activist’s relatives urgently hired another counsel for him — Bauyrzhan Azanov. In fact, Azanov began his actions to defend Dulat Agadil when it became known that the activist had died in the pre-trial detention facility. The authorities began to make attempts to remove Azanov from the case regarding Dulat Agadil’s death.

On 25 February 2020, forensic experts began to perform an autopsy on Agadil’s body. For a long time, counsel Bauyrzhan Azanov was prevented from entering the morgue. There was a special police bus near the morgue building. They let him in at the final stage of the autopsy — Counsel Azanov saw only the internal organs of the deceased, but not the body itself. The counsel demanded that the autopsy be suspended and insisted that independent expert pathologists carry out the autopsy on the body.

On the same day, the human rights organisation “Kazakhstani International Bureau for Human Rights” (KIBHR), at the request of Counsel Azanov, helped to find two expert pathologists, Arman Akhanbekov and Ruslan Satyvaldiyev, who are not employees of the state expert service. On 26 February 2020, they began to examine the body of Agadil which was already opened. As stated by human rights activist Yevgeny Zhovtis, in Kazakhstan, “it is very difficult to find independent experts and guarantee that they don’t become scared or careful so as to prevent any conflicts with the authorities” . This is especially true of politically motivated cases.

Two days later, the fears of human rights activists were confirmed. On 28 February 2020, the expert pathologists Arman Akhanbekov and Ruslan Satyvaldiyev took part in a briefing by the Deputy Prosecutor of Nur-Sultan, Yeldos Kilimzhanov. Medical specialists, who were supposed to be independent, began to repeat the version of the authorities even before the end of the examination. In particular, Arman Akhanbekov stated that the hematomas and bruises on the body of Dulat Agadil are post mortem stains and no injuries were found on the body of Dulat Agadil.

Relatives were advised to use the services of Counsel Aiman ​​Umarova, who is a member of the National Council of Public Trust with the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, and also spoke approvingly of the President on social networks. Umarova demanded that she be the only counsel for Dulat Agadil’s family. Thus, Counsel Azanov was, in fact, removed from the case. Counsel Aiman Umarova refused to cooperate with human rights organisations in the case regarding Agadil and sabotaged a public investigation into the death of the activist.

In connection with such actions of the counsel, Kazakhstani activists held a challenge on social networks with a call to strip Aiman Umarova of the US State Department’s International Women of Courage Award, which she received in 2018.

Dulat Agadil’s relatives were forced to hire Counsel Galym Nurpeisov, who currently represents the interests of the deceased activist’s family members.

President Tokayev named the cause of Agadil’s death before the results of the examination became known

On 29 February 2020, without waiting for the results of the forensic medical examination, President Kassym-Zhomart Tokayev stated as follows: “I can state with full conviction that, unfortunately, the activist Agadil died as a result of heart failure. Saying otherwise is denying the truth”.

However, Dulat Agadil’s family members and associates do not believe in the official version of his death. Agadil’s mother Gulbarash Zholmukhambetova believes that in his statement, President Tokayev exerted pressure on the investigators and pushed the investigation in a specific direction. She labels the death of her son “a political killing”. “He’s not a criminal. His fault was that he spoke the truth. I believe that [Nursultan] Nazarbayev, [Kassym-Zhomart] Tokayev, [Karim] Massimov, Yerlan Turgumbayev are to blame for his death”,  Dulat Agadil’s mother stated.

The authorities obstruct public investigation into the activist’s death

There are a number of inconsistencies between the data collected by the Open Dialogue Foundation, activists of the “Qaharman” Human Rights Foundation and the “405” human rights movement, which contrasts with the authorities’ version. The actions of law enforcement bodies seem to cover for their employees and justify the statement of President Tokayev about the cause of Dulat Agadil’s death as a result of heart failure, while there were no official results of the examination.On 27 February 2020, Agadil’s funeral took place. Before that, with the consent of Agadil’s brother, activists recorded video footage of his body. On the evening of 27 February 2020, this footage began to spread on social networks. The footage shows abrasions and bruises on the back, thighs, palm and heels of the deceased Agadil. The activists passed this information to the members of the European Parliament delegation, one of whom, MP Róża Thun, drew attention to the injuries on the body and published screenshots depicting them.

On 28 February 2020, Deputy Prosecutor of the city of Nur-Sultan, Yeldos Kilymzhanov held a briefing, where he stated that these were not bodily injuries, but “post mortem stains”.  

Abrasions and hematomas 
on Agadil’s dead body

Instead of properly verifying the footage with alleged signs of torture, the authorities brought criminal charges against the authors of the footage for “disseminating knowingly false information” (Article 274 of the CC). In the criminal case, the activist Medet Arystanov was granted the status of a “witness entitled to protection”, which in Kazakhstani reality actually means the status of a suspect. Activists Kairat Seitkaliyev, Saltanat Barykbayev, Darkhan Umirbayev and Dinara Abisheva, Askar Kairbek, Asel Onlanbekkyzy, Nagyskhan Tulebayev, Auzhan Ayazbekova and human rights activist Anna Shukeyeva were also regularly called for questioning as witnesses, thus the authorities were putting systematic pressure on them. The persecution of individuals who testified to the torture of Dulat Agadil received widespread coverage and outrage on social media. Against the backdrop of public pressure, on 19 June 2020, the criminal case for “disseminating deliberately false information” was closed.

The events indicate that the authorities exerted pressure on Dulat Agadil’s family members in order to prevent the case from being publicised. On 28 February 2020, Deputy Prosecutor of the city of Nur-Sultan Yeldos Kilymzhanov stated at a briefing that Agadil’s mother had filed a statement against activists who posted the footage of Agadil’s body. However, on 10 March 2020, she spoke at a press conference organised by the “Qaharman” human rights initiative and Dulat Agadil’s associates. Agadil’s mother stated she withdrew her statement against the activists from the prosecutor’s office. She also stated that the activists made the footage with her consent and that she has no complaints against them.

The wife of the deceased activist, Gulnara Kasymkhanova, stated that representatives of the Akimat approached her and asked that she and her children abstain from communicating with civil society activists. In return, the Akimat promised assistance in registering a land plot and building a house for Dulat Agadil’s family [15], [16].

Closure of the investigation into the death of Dulat Agadil

On 25 May 2020, the Head of the Investigative Operations Group, N.S. Nakishev, issued a decision to close the pre-trial investigation and close the criminal case regarding the death of Dulat Agadil due to “the absence of a criminal offence”. According to the official results of the forensic medical examination, Dulat Agadil’s death occurred as a result of an acute myocardial infarction. According to the conclusions of the expert of the National Scientific Cardiac Surgery Centre, Marat Aripov, myocardial infarction proceeded in Agadil “veiledly, secretly”.

Dulat Agadil’s family members claim that he never had heart problems and did not complain of pain in the heart area. Therefore, they categorically deny that Agadil died due to heart disease.

Counsel Galym Nurpeisov, Dulat Agadil’s mother, Gulbarash Zholmukhambetova and widow Gulnar Kasymkhanova filed several new applications with the prosecutor’s office, demanding that Agadil’s death be re-investigated and the employees of the detention facility who ignored the critical deterioration in Agadil’s health be brought to justice. However, on 24 August 2020, they received a response from the prosecutor of the city of Nur-Sultan Bauyrzhan Myrzakerov in which he stated that there were no elements of illegal actions by the employees of the Tselinograd police department, or the employees of the Nur-Sultan pre-trial detention facility (The Institution EC 166/1).

Large-scale persecution of activists for demanding an independent investigation into the murder of Dulat Agadil and honouring his memory

The death of the opposition activist triggered further large-scale peaceful protests that were held in the period between 25 February 2020 and 1 March 2020 in 14 cities and towns of Kazakhstan. The protesters demanded an independent investigation into Agadil’s death and the resignation of the government. Within this time, the police detained at least 244 peaceful protesters with the use of brutal force, of which more than 20 people were subjected to administrative arrest. One of the activists, Serik Askarov, had his arm broken during the detention. Many activists were injured.  Human rights defenders Dana Zhanay and Saltanat Barykbayeva, who collected information for the public about the case of Agadil, were among those detained.

Throughout the summer, activists using the Asar method (a popular Kazakhstani tradition of joint gratuitous work) helped the family of Dulat Agadil to build a house. On 24 July 2020, after the completion of the next stage of building the house, a group of activists walked from the house of Dulat Agadil to his grave, which is outside the village. During the procession, they chanted Dulat Agadil’s name, as well as the slogans “Forward, Kazakhstan!” and “Police are with the people!”. Police officers were watching what happened and recorded everything on camera, but did not interfere with the procession.

On 8 August 2020, in honour of the completion of a house for the family of the deceased activist, activists from different regions of Kazakhstan held a memorial ceremony in honour of Dulat Agadil in Talapker village, where he lived. The preparation for the ceremony was carried out with the active participation of civil activists, who donated money and provided other necessary assistance.

Law enforcement bodies persecuted activists on a large scale for participating in the march of 24 July 2020 and the following memorial ceremony of 8 August 2020. 85 activists were subjected to administrative arrests for a period of five to 15 days, while at least 28 activists were fined, having been convicted of ‘violating the order of organising and holding a rally’. Some trials were carried out at night (at midnight) and in a rush. As of 7 September 2020, at least 183 persons were recorded as persecuted for political reasons for participating in the funeral feast of Dulat Agadil; of them, at least 22 activists were subjected to prosecution.

The facts indicate that Dulat Agadil was subjected to torture following his detention at night, after which he died in the detention facility in Nur-Sultan, where he was not provided with adequate nor timely medical assistance. The death of the activist was due to the criminal actions of the police officers and the subsequent negligence of the detention facility workers.

The death of Agadil is a consequence of the systematic politically motivated persecution and arrests to which he had been subjected. This political killing is a direct consequence of the oppressive policy of the Kazakhstani authorities against protesters and opposition, and once again exposed the systemic problem of torture in Kazakhstan. Civil society perceives this event as a demonstrative intimidation of activists, who now risk not only their freedom, but also their lives.

The Kazakhstani authorities didn’t conduct an objective and independent investigation into the death of Dulat Agadil and consistently attempted to conceal the circumstances of the events that occurred the night of his death. The authorities used attempts to honour the memory of Dulat Agadil and demands for an objective investigation as a pretext for a new wave of persecution.

The Bureau of South and Central Asia with the US Department of State, the British Embassy in Kazakhstan, Director of the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights Solrun Gisladottir, member of the Belgian Senate Marc Demesmaecker, as well as more than 24 members of the European Parliament (who also expressed outrage at the pressure on the Agadil’s family and the mass persecution of activists for paying tribute to his memory) [17], [18]. expressed their concern over the death of Dulat Agadil in the detention facility. They called for a public and thorough investigation into the death of the activist, which was ignored by the Kazakhstani authorities.

On 30 April 2020 The Permanent Representative of the United States of America to the OSCE, James Gilmore, in his address to the Head of the OSCE Programme Office in Nur-Sultan said: “The death in police custody of human rights defender Dulat Agadil in February and the subsequent detention of demonstrators who peacefully demanded a response from the authorities regarding the cause of his death, underlines that the Office in Nur-Sultan should be giving priority to its work in the field of judicial and police reform“.

5. The Orazov Serik and Khairolla Amanbike cases

Civil activists Serik Orazov and Amanbike Khairolla were systematically subjected to politically motivated persecution and pressure from the authorities in connection with their social activities. This has subsequently led to the activists’ deaths, which have the character of political killing. In addition, the death of Amanbike Khairolla was used by police and NSC officers to intimidate human rights defenders and activists in Aktobe.

The case of Serik Orazov

Serik Orazov

Serik Orazov was an opposition activist from Aktobe. He participated in meetings and actions called for by the opposition movement DCK and “Koshe Partiyasy”. Serik Orazov recorded and published video messages on social networks criticizing the authorities, demanding respect for the rights to freedom of assembly and freedom of speech, participated in peaceful meetings, and attended politically motivated trials against activists. Orazov also publicly opposed Chinese economic expansion and the construction of 55 Chinese plants in Kazakhstan.

Orazov was repeatedly detained by force for participation in peaceful rallies. In particular, the police detained him on 19 September 2019, 16 December 2019 and 1 March 2020. Serik Orazov reported that during his detention on 1 March 2020, the police officers hit him and twisted his arms, after which his blood pressure rose, his heart rate increased and he lost consciousness in a police car. Unconscious, he was taken to the police station, from where an ambulance took him to a hospital, where he was treated. When Orazov left the hospital, the police again grabbed him and took him to the administrative court. There, at 20:00 late in the evening, he was given an administrative warning for “disobeying the police”.

According to Berik Orazov, Serik Orazov’s son, since 10 April 2020 their family has observed regular round-the-clock surveillance of their house. 

On 15 May 2020, police officer Ramazan Kaliyev tried to detain 68-year-old Orazov, held him by force, pushed him away and prevented him from entering his house. Judging by the conversation, the policeman probably had questions for Orazov about his participation in the rallies. Later in his statement, policeman Kaliyev said that he had been instructed to take activist Orazov to the police station as part of the administrative case under Article 476 Part 3 (“violation of the state of emergency in terms of the ban on rallies”).

The son of the victim reported that when Serik Orazov tried to get into the building, the policeman grabbed him by the neck using a suffocating technique. Immediately afterwards, Orazov fell and died, not even making it to the flat. The State Medical Examiner concluded that Orazov’s cause of death was cardiovascular failure.

Relatives are demanding that police officer Ramazan Kaliyev, who used force on Orazov, be brought to justice. The police opened a criminal case under Article 362 of the Criminal Code, “Excess of powers or official authorities”, although relatives demanded that an investigation into torture be opened.

However, on 26 June 2020 the investigation “did not find any elements of a crime” and closed the criminal case against the policeman. The investigators referred to the testimony of Ramazan Kaliyev himself, who was classified as a witness. According to his testimony, Kaliyev “did not use force, did not hit, drag, throw on the ground, twist his arms or perform any other illegal actions against Orazov S.”.

At the same time, the investigation refused to hold a confrontation between policeman Kaliyev and Berik Orazov, arguing that the son of the deceased gave testimony that allegedly “does not contradict” the policeman’s testimony. However, this is not true, as the policeman denied the use of force, and Berik Orazov publicly stated that he saw the policeman use a suffocating technique in the entryway – he grabbed the activist by the neck.

The decision to terminate the investigation against the policeman uses the following phrase without further explanation: “Orazov S. always went to rallies”.

The closure of a criminal case regarding the death of an opposition activist sparked a wave of public outrage on social networks. In September 2020, it became known that the case was sent for further investigation.

Police officer Ramazan Kaliyev continues to work in the police force and to participate in the persecution of activists.

The case of Amanbike Khairolla

 Amanbike Khairolla (last name according to documents – Meyrkhanova) is an opposition activist from Aktobe who supported the movements DCK and “Koshe Partiyasy”. She was 32 years old and the mother of three children. On 28 March 2020 the police reported that the body of Amanbike Khairolla was found on the outskirts of Aktobe.

Amanbike Khairolla

The day before, a farewell letter was published on Amanbike Khairolla’s Facebook page. However, earlier, Khairolla herself reported that this page had been hacked on 19 February 2020 and that unknown people had access to it.It should be noted that in February-August 2020, several dozen opposition activists announced that their accounts had been hacked. The information pages of the Human Rights Organisations “Qaharman” and “405” have also been attacked. After her account was hacked, Khairolla texted her friends from the Kazakhkyzy Koshe Partyasinda Facebook page.

The official version of Khairolla’s death was labelled as suicide by the authorities.

Khairolla participated in opposition rallies and criticized the authorities on social networks. As a result, she was repeatedly subjected to arbitrary detentions and interrogations in the regional administration, city prosecutor’s office and the NSC. There is a video where Khairolla tells how on 6 December 2019 NSC officers in civilian clothes abducted her from her home, took her phone and brought her for interrogation. After the NSC employees seized her phone, posts started to disappear from her Facebook page. According to local activists, the NSC officers offered Khairolla “cooperation with the authorities”, promising a flat in return, but the activist refused.

On 4 March 2020, Khairolla filed a police report stating that she had been receiving threatening messages from unknown persons on social networks since February 2020. According to the messages, these individuals knew Khairolla’s personal data and the routes she and her family took. Khairolla told her friend, activist Yerlan Faizullayev, that unknown persons in their mesages accused her of “facilitating” the murder of Dulat Agadil and threatened to “kill her children if she does not commit suicide”. It is known that police have informed Khairolla of their intention to question her in the case of the death of Dulat Agadil.

“My soul hurts, I’m depressed,” Khairolla told her friend Faizullayev. On 20 March 2020, Khairolla sent a message to Faizullayev saying “I will be killed soon”. A few hours after the official announcement of Khairolla’s death, the police summoned for questioning Altynay Tuksikova, human rights defender of the “Qaharman” Human Rights Foundation. The reason for the persecution was that the name “Altynay” was mentioned among other names in a suicide letter on a hacked Facebook page. Tuksikova notes that she did not know Khairolla. Tuksikova, as well as several other opposition activists, continue to be questioned in the criminal case of Khairolla’s death.

6. The list of persons involved in the persecution of activists and human rights defenders

This section lists persons who follow criminal orders and directly participate in the persecution of activists and human rights defenders for participation in peaceful gatherings, criticism of the authorities on social networks, civil and human rights activities.

NUR-SULTAN (ASTANA)

In the period from September 2019 to October 2020, at least 265 activists were politically persecuted in Nur-Sultan. One activist, Dulat Agadil, was killed as a result of police actions.

Malybayev Bakytzhan Asymbekovich

Malybayev Bakytzhan Asymbekovich

Position: First Deputy Head of Nur-Sultan Police Department, Police Colonel
Date of birth: 23 July 1969
ID card: 047564720
Passport number: N12926717
Address: Nur-Sultan, Shevchenko street 4 apt. 36

Participation in human rights violations: Malybayev was seen many times at peaceful protests in Nur-Sultan, during which he managed the process of forcible detention and dispersal of protesters. On 22 March 2019, he ordered the arrest of Svetlana Glushkova, a journalist from the TV channel “Nastoyashcheye Vremya” (“Current Time”), who was covering the peaceful action. On 9 May 2019, Bakhytzhan Malybayev assured journalists that his subordinates did not detain protesters, although at least five arrests were recorded that day. On 3 June 2019, Malybayev managed the actions of police officers who surrounded the protesting mothers with many children on the square near the Parliament building in Nur-Sultan.

On 6 July 2019, Malybayev commanded the actions of police officers and special police units during the detention of protesters demanding the cancellation of the results of the presidential elections in Kazakhstan. Malybayev covered the actions of the so-called “titushky” [Titushky is a collective term that emerged in Ukraine to refer to persons of athletic build who were used by the authorities to organise forceful provocation and incitement to unrest] Azamat Shaykelemov and Zhiger Akhmetov, who hindered the work of journalists from Radio Azattyq. In response to the journalists’ request to pay attention to them, Bakytzhan Malybayev replied: “These are your people, they are specially provoking”.

Tuleuov Askhat Kalmagambetovich

Position: Head of the Nur-Sultan Department of the National Security Committee.

Bilisbekov Nurgali Dauletbekovich

Date of birth: 20 December 1962
Position: Deputy Chairman of the NSC of the Republic of Kazakhstan, curator of the 10th Department of the NSC, Lieutenant General of the NSC.

Participation in human rights violations: According to activists, Askhat Tuleuov is the organizer of the dispersal of peaceful protests in Nur-Sultan on 21 March 2019 and 1 May 2019. It is reported that Nurgali Bilisbekov is responsible for the racketeering of businessmen by NSC employees. Tuleuov and Bilisbekov have family ties.

Abdurakhmanov Tahir Nurkanovich

Abdurakhmanov Tahir Nurkanovich

Position: Deputy Head of the Local Police Department of the Internal Affairs Department of Nur-Sultan, Colonel

Participation in human rights violations: According to human rights activist Anna Shukeyeva, on 12 June 2020 Abdurakhmanov interrogated her at the police station after she was detained for taking part in a protest near the US Embassy in Nur-Sultan. Shukeyeva reported that she was held for more than six hours in police custody, denied the right to make a call, locked in the office, not allowed to drink and not allowed to use the toilet for a long time. Abdurakhmanov took a swing at her with his hands and threatened that he would send her to a mental hospital if she did not stop demanding the right to call. Directly at the police station Shukeyeva was tried in an online court, which fined her 50 MCI (about 265 euro) for “calling for an unauthorised meeting”.

Ilyasov Ruslan and Abitasov Zhasulan

Ilyasov Ruslan (left on photo)

Position: Police Officer, Senior Lieutenant 

Abitasov Zhasulan (presumably not his real name – on the right).

Position: Police Officer, Senior Lieutenant

Participation in human rights violations: On 12 June 2020, after Anna Shukeyeva was fined with 50 MCI (about 265 euro), Ilyasov and Abitasov took her out of the police building, forcibly put her in a car and threatened to take her to the hospital. They used force against Shukeyeva, despite her pregnancy. Abitasov insulted the activist, calling her an “animal”. After Shukeyeva took out her phone and started a live video broadcast, the police took her home [19], [20]

Sagadiyev Alimkhan Kazbekovich

Sagadiyev Alimkhan Kazbekovich

Date of birth: 6 May 1997
Position: Investigator of the Tselinograd District Police Department

Participation in human rights violations: Investigator Sagadiyev was investigating the criminal case “insulting the judge and slandering the prosecutor” against Dulat Agadil. Participated in the night detention of the activist on 24 February 2020.

Appasov Kuandyk Besimbayevich

Date of birth: 8 February 1992
ID card: 034489600
Address: Akmol village, Cheremushki street 3, apt. 13
Position: Employee of the Tselinograd District Police Department

Baukayev Darkhan Kayratovich

Date of birth: 10 November 1989
ID card: 035039642
Address: Akmol village, Gagarina street 10, apt. 15 
Position:  Employee of the Tselinograd District Police Department

Seydaly Khangeldy Maksutuly

Date of birth: 21 June 1995
ID card: 040278057
Address: Akmol village, Gagarina street 15, apt. 21 
Position:  Employee of the Tselinograd District Police Department

Kaparov Zharas Tolyugenovich

Date of birth: 16 August 1984
ID card: 047927074
Address: Akmol village, Bakyt microdistrict 12, apt. 19 
Position:  Employee of the Tselinograd District Police Department

From left to right: Kuandyk Appasov, Darkhan Baukayev, Khangeldy Seydaly, Zharas Kaparov

Participation in human rights violations: On 24 February 2020, police officers from the Tselinograd district Appasov, Baukayev, Seidaly and Kaparov broke into the house of activist Dulat Agadil late at night, detained him and brought him to the pre-trial detention facility. In the morning of 25 February 2020, the authorities reported the death of Agadil in the pre-trial detention facility. According to the activists, Appasov is closely connected to the NSC.

Sattayev M.

Position: Employee of the Pre-Trial Detention Facility in Nur-Sultan (establishment ЕЦ-166/1 of the Committee of criminally-executive system)

Anarbayev D.

Position: Employee of the Pre-Trial Detention Facility in Nur-Sultan (establishment ЕЦ-166/1 of the Committee of criminally-executive system)

Participation in human rights violations: On the night between 24th February and 25th February 2020, employees of the pre-trial detention facility showed a negligent attitude towards the dying Dulat Agadil. It was Sattayev and Anarbayev who did not provide the activist with medical assistance.

Aitimov Aset Yersainuly

Position: Road Patrol Inspector

Participation in human rights violations: On 6 June 2020 he detained Agadilov Nurbolat, son of the murdered activist Dulat Agadil.

Aytuganov Madiyar Duysenalievich

Aytuganov Madiyar Duysenalievich

Date of birth: 11 April 1983
ID card: 034414026
Passport number: N11307066
Address: Nur-Sultan, Turkistan street 10, apt. 268
Position: Head of the Yesilsky District Department of Internal Affairs in Nur-Sultan, Lieutenant Colonel 

Participation in human rights violations: As the head of the Yesilsky district police department, Aytuganov is personally responsible for persecuting civil activists and peaceful protesters in Nur-Sultan. Once detained, they are often taken to the Yesilsky District Department of Internal Affairs, where their rights are systematically violated — they are not provided with a lawyer, not allowed to make a telephone call, and detained in unacceptable conditions. According to activists, it is Aytuganov who is in charge of detentions (often with the use of brute force by police officers) during protests.

Uteikin Bakhtiyar Khairbulatovich

Uteikin Bakhtiyar Khairbulatovich

Position: Senior Operative Investigator of the Police Department in the Tselinograd District of Akmol village, Head of the Department for Combating Extremism of the Akmol Region Police Department, Police Colonel 

Participation in human rights violations: On 4 July 2018, Uteikin participated in the detention of civil activist Kaiyrla Omar, who was subsequently sentenced to 2 years in prison on a politically motivated case. 

On 4 May 2019 in Akmol village (36 km from Nur-Sultan), Uteikin took part in the detention of civil activist Dulat Agadil, who subsequently died in a pre-trial detention facility. A mobile phone was confiscated from Agadil during his detention. A few days later, Bakhtiyar Uteikin admitted to the camera that Agadil’s mobile phone had been seized illegally and he was ready to face punishment for it.

Satenov Marat Yerzhanuly

Position: Officer in the Department for Combating Extremism and Terrorism, Major NSC

Participation in human rights violationsIntimidates activists with criminal liability for participation in the Telegram chat of the opposition movement DCK.

Baigaliyev Aibek Bektasovich

Baigaliyev Aibek Bektasovich

Position: District Police Officer, Lieutenant Colonel of Police (photo of business card)

Galiakparov Yerkin Baltabayevich

Position: presumably a Criminal Investigation Officer

Participation in human rights violations: On 30 May 2019, Aibek Baigaliyev and Yerkin Galiakparov interrogated disabled activist Zhaslan Suleimenov. During the interrogation, they asked about his activities, possible involvement in international organisations and trips to Almaty.

Kadir Timur

Kadir Timur

Date of birth: 1 July 1983
IIN: 830701350783
ID card: 031882204
Address: Nur-Sultan, Amangelgy Imanov street 11, apt. 2  
Position: Police officer, Major

Participation in human rights violations: On 9 May 2019, the day of a peaceful protest, Timur Kadir, together with two unknown perpetrators, detained the civil activist Zhanbota Alzhanova using brute force. Without introducing themselves or explaining why, they pulled Alzhanova out of the bus in which she was riding and pushed her into their car. Alzhanova was held for more than 3 hours in the Baikonur District Department of Internal Affairs.

Sarsenbaiuly Mergen

Sarsenbaiuly Mergen (presented as Arman)

Position: Police Officer, Astana.

Participation in human rights violations: On 7 June 2019, Sarsenbaiuly searched the house where activists Nazym Serikpekova, Gulmira Kalikova and Nursula Khamzina lived. During the search, he used brute force against Serikpekova. “He forcibly wrung my hands behind my back and raised me high up, and I was bent with my head down and then fell down. Then he lifted me up and pulled me out into the entryway and held me with my head down, while my hands were still held from behind. I was in hellish pain. My hands were bruised, as he firmly pressed my stomach with his hands,”Serikpekova said. On the same day, Sarsenbaiuly searched the activist Akmaral Kerimbayeva. He hit her in the face and smashed her lip.

In 2019, Sarsenbaiuly, together with two unidentified persons, beat up activist Kairat Seitkaliyev and took him to the Almaty District Police Station. As a result of the beating, the activist’s ear cartilages were broken. 

On 17 September 2020, Sarsenbaiuly and a group of police officers came to the home of the widow of the murdered activist Dulat Agadil, Gulnara Kasymkhanova, and demanded a contract for living in a flat, which was provided to the Agadil family by acquaintances. This happened the day after the Agadil family met with members of the European Parliament.

Banu Abdukarim

Banu Abdukarim

Position: Police Officer, Major

Participation in human rights violations: On 21 September 2019, the day of a peaceful protest in Nur-Sultan, Banu participated in the detention of civil activist Sholpan Utekeyeva. The detention process was recorded on video by journalist Saniya Toiken. Banu snatched the phone from her hands saying: “Why are you filming?”. After the arrest, Sholpan Utekeyeva was held at the police station for about 7 hours. During questioning, the police asked her about the purpose of her visit to Nur-Sultan.

Kurmanov Daulet Bolatovich

Kurmanov Daulet Bolatovich

Date of birth: 4 August 1992
Address: Nur-Sultan, Gete street 10. apt. 7
Position: NSC employee

Participation in human rights violations: Kurmanov is prosecuting activists accused of supporting the peaceful opposition movement DCK. On 26 April 2019 and 27 April 2019, he visited the activists Alimzhan Izbasarov and Zhanbota Alzhanova to hold so-called “explanatory talks“. On 30 May 2019, he watched the activists who came to the military committee to support Izbasarov, who was compulsorily enlisted in the army for political reasons. Moreover, on 7 June 2019, Kurmanov participated in an entry raid on the flat of the activist Aliya Zhakupova. He also took part in the search of the flat and her arrest. On 4 July 2019, together with his partner, who introduced himself as Berik, they came to the home of activist Anna Shukeyeva and detained her together with her baby. The officers did not have a filled in subpoena with them.

Sadvakasov Didar

Sadvakasov Didar

Position: Operative Investigator of the Internal Affairs Department in Nur-Sultan, Department for Combating Extremism.

Participation in human rights violations: On 28 September 2019, Sadvakasov with the use of brute force detained activist Altyn Bazarbay, causing her pelvic injury and multiple bruises on her body.

Bekbauov Murat

Position: NSC employee

Participation in human rights violations: On 26 June 2020, Bekbauov was following the activist Altyn Lesbayeva, taking pictures of her on his phone. After Lesbayeva also videotaped him, he demanded that she delete the videotape.

Bauyrzhan

Bauyrzhan

Position: presumably an Employee of the NSC

Participation in human rights violations: On 30 May 2019, he followed the activists near the military recruitment office, where Alimzhan Izbasarov was called. He was also recorded during the cordon of protestesting mothers with many children on the square near the Parliament building on 3 June 2019.

Baibazarov Damir

Baibazarov Damir

Position: Employee of the Public Security Department of the Internal Affairs Department of Nur-Sultan city.

Participation in human rights violations: For several years Baibazarov has been involved in arrests and pressure on civil activists. In 2016, he participated in the arbitrary detention, which can be regarded as abduction, of Aigul Utepova, a land rally activist. In 2017, Baibazarov took part in the search of civil activist Makhambet Abzhan. On 7 June 2019, he participated in blocking the car of activist Didar Baizhakupov. According to some sources, his group was involved in the arrest of public figure Serikzhan Bilash, known for defending the rights of the Turkic population in China’s Xinjiang province.

Zhunusov Dastan Kairgeldiyevich

Position: Criminal Police Department Officer, Major

Participation in human rights violations: On 9 June 2019, Zhunusov, together with two partners who refused to tell their names, detained activist Aliya Zhakupova. The police beat the phone out of Zhakupova’s son’s hands when he tried to videotape the moment of her detention. The police officers were dressed in civilian clothes. Zhakupova was taken to the Almaty District Department of Internal Affairs for questioning.

Zholdasov T. B.

Position: Investigator of the Investigations Department of the Nur-Sultan Police Department, Police Captain

Participation in human rights violations: On 7 June 2019, Zholdasov took part in the prosecution of activist Yerbol Yeskhozhin, who was detained and taken to the Nur-Sultan Department of Internal Affairs for questioning. The investigator Zholdasov spent more than 3 hours interrogating him and also conducted a personal search of Yeskhozhin. In the search report, Zholdasov mentioned that some of Yeskhozhin’s clothes were blue: “blue shirt, blue underwear”. Blue is the signifying colour of the opposition movement DCK.

Askarov Daulet

Askarov Daulet

Position: Police Officer

Participation in human rights violations: On 26 October 2019, the day of the protest, Askarov prevented Anna Shukeyeva from leaving her own yard, put his feet under the baby carriage with her child inside and followed her. On 26 October 2019, the police carried out a number of preventive detentions of activists in order to prevent the protest called for by the opposition movement DCK.

Abulkhairov Nurbol Zhaksylykovich (photo left)

Abulkhairov Nurbol Zhaksylykovich and Dosbolov Alisher Nurlanovich

Position: Operative Investigator, Chief Police Lieutenant

Dosbolov Alisher Nurlanovich

Position: Operative Investigator, Chief Police Lieutenant of the Yesilskiy District Department of Internal Affairs

Participation in human rights violations: Since 2018, Abulkhairov and Dosbolov have been seen persecuting the participants in peaceful rallies in Nur-Sultan. On 10 May 2018, they were placing detained protesters at the Yesilsky District Police Department. Many detainees complained that Abulkhairov and Dosbolov ignored their requests for a lawyer, to notify their relatives, to drink water and to be released to the toilet. On the day of the rally, 9 May 2019, activists were summoned by the police to prevent their participation in the rally.

Momyshev Alikhan Batyrkhanovich

Momyshev Alikhan Batyrkhanovich

Position: Operative Investigator of the Almaty District Police Department, Nur-Sultan, Senior Lieutenant.

Participation in human rights violations: On 5 July 2019, Momyshev together with his partner threatened disabled activist Zhaslan Suleimenov. The activist was warned about administrative and criminal liability for participation in the upcoming rally.

Mukanov Asanali Sultangazievich

Position: Senior Lieutenant in the Investigations Division of the Nur-Sultan Police Department (left on photo)

Kibatova Gizalia

Position: Operative Investigator of the Nur-Sultan Police Department (photo: second from left)

Aitimishev Sanzhar 

Position: Operative Investigator of the Nur-Sultan Police Department (photo: second from the right)

Karimov Yerzhan Khamitovich

Position: Forensic Investigator (right on photo)

Mukanov Asanali, Kibatova Gizalia, Aitimishev Sanzhar, Karimov Yerzhan

Participation in human rights violations: On 7 June 2019, the door of the flat of the activist Aliya Zhakupova was forced open, after which the activist was searched and detained.

Investigator Mukanov questioned Zhakupova about her connection with the DCK. During the search conducted by Operative Investigator Aitimishev, flags of Kazakhstan and equipment were seized. Forensic Investigator Yerzhan Karimov, Operative Investigator Gizaliya Kibatova and another officer also took part in the arrest of Zhakupova.

Aldanov Serik and Kolobov Andrey

Aldanov Serik Ashirovich (left on photo)

Position: Operative Investigator, Senior Lieutenant

Kolobov Andrey Vitalievich (right on photo)

Position: Operative Investigator, Lieutenant

Participation in human rights violations: On 22 February 2020, Aldanov and Kolobov issued a summons to activist Saule Sadvakasova. Later they tracked down the activist in a pharmacy, detained her by force and took her to a district police station where they held her for several hours. The interrogation report was not issued.

Zhakparov Mansur

Zhakparov Mansur

Position: Road Patrol Police, Senior Lieutenant

Participation in human rights violations: On 17 May 2019, Zhakparov participated in the forcible detention of activist Darkhan Umirbayev for shouting from his balcony: “Boycott of unfair elections!” During the detention, Zhakparov used a stun gun six times against Umirbayev and four times against his wife Dinara Abisheva. The incident took place in front of Umirbayev and Abisheva’s young children. Despite copious video and photographic evidence, Zhakparov denies that the stun gun was used.

Kaliyev B.S.

Kaliyev B.S.

Position: Senior Police Lieutenant  

Participation in human rights violations: On 9 May 2019, the day of the peaceful rally, Kaliyev presented a summons for questioning to activist Darkhan Umirbayev. Kaliyev filled out the summons himself, signing with the name of Major Omarov E.A. After that, Kaliyev together with another law enforcement officer detained Umirbayev. Thus, the activist was not allowed to participate in the rally.

Dzhaldygarayev (name unknown)

Position: Operative Investigator 

Participation in human rights violations: On 6 July 2019, the day of the rally, together with his partner he detained the activist Madina Zhakenova, having previously guarded her under her house. They did not present a subpoena. During the detention, the activist was dragged on the ground and her phone was seized.

Mukhatayev Azat and Dzhumashev Bagdaulet

Mukhataev Azat (left on photo)

Position: District Police Officer, Captain

Dzhumashev Bagdaulet (right on photo)

Position: Operative Investigator of the Criminal Police Department of Akkol District, Nur-Sultan.

Participation in human rights violations: On 10 June 2020, they visited the home of activist Aya Sadvakasova and read out an explanation of the ban on supporting the “Koshe Partiyasy” movement in connection with its recognition as “extremist”. They invited her to drive to the akimat with them.

Yevteyev Ruslan

Yevteyev Ruslan Erkuly

Position: Police Officer, Senior Lieutenant

Participation in human rights violations: On 10 June 2020, Yevteev and his partner detained pregnant activist Sanda Mynbayeva, who took part in a peaceful rally outside the UN office in Nur-Sultan. After the arrest, she was driven around the city in a police car for some time, but was then released.

Syrymbetov Almas Abugalievich

Position: Presumably Investigator

Participation in human rights violations: On 27 February 2020, Praliyev and Syrymbetov were questioning a human rights activist from the human rights movement “405”, Saltanat Barykbayeva. She was held at the police station for about 5 hours. Barykbayeva was detained when she was participating in a protest in honour of the murdered activist Dulat Agadil.

Isatayev Bekzhan

Isatayev Bekzhan

Position: Employee of the Yenbekshy District Department of Internal Affairs, Senior Lieutenant.

Participation in human rights violations: On 6 June 2020, he shouted at detained activists in the Yenbekshy District Department of Internal Affairs, was being rude, provoked them, and threatened to open a criminal case against all the detainees.

Praliyev Azamat Shalkarovich

Position: Investigator of Almaty District Department of Internal Affairs, Nur-Sultan.

Muslim Sultan

Muslim Sultan

Position: Special Rapid Response Unit (SOBR) officer

Participation in human rights violations: On 21 September 2019, he detained participants in a peaceful protest action. In particular, he detained an elderly woman.

Akhmetov Daniyar

Position: Police Officer

Participation in human rights violations: On 6 June 2020, Akhmetov arrested the activist Dinara Mubarak using brute force. During the detention he threw her to the ground and held her by the legs and hands. As a result, the activist was left with bruises.

Kilymzhanov Yeldos

Kilymzhanov Yeldos Toktasynovich

Date of birth: 15 March 1977
ID card: 042866597
Passport number: N11041394
Address: Almaty, Ryskulbekova street 28/5, apt. 34
Position: Deputy Prosecutor of Nur-Sultan

Participation in human rights violations. In the first days after Dulat Agadil’s death, Kilymzhanov acted as the Speaker of the authorities. On 28 February 2020, he held an official briefing during which he stated that the abrasions and bruises on Dulat Agadil’s body were “post mortem stains”, and also threatened activists with criminal liability for distributing a video recording of the abrasions and bruises on the body of the deceased activist.

Earlier, on 10 September 2018, being the prosecutor of the Almalinsky district of Almaty, Kilymzhanov participated in the dispersal of a peaceful protest.

Nakishev Nurlan

Nakishev Nurlan Sembayevich 

Date of birth: 23 July 1979
ID card: 047313680
Passport number: N12891819
Address: Nur-Sultan, Shaymerden Khosshygululy 7, apt. 533 
Position: Special Prosecutor of the Prosecutor’s Office in Nur-Sultan, head of the investigation and operational team investigating the death of Dulat Agadil.

Participation in human rights violations: Nakishev sabotaged an objective investigation into the death of Dulat Agadil and closed the criminal case due to “unfounded allegations”. Nakishev also did not give Dulat Agadil’s lawyer and relatives the video recordings from the security cameras in the pre-trial detention facility, although he had previously granted a request for copies of the video recordings.

Abilov Berik

Abilov Berik Rakatovich

Date of birth: 5 June 1971
ID card: 035305578
Passport number: N08849952
Address: Nur-Sultan, Saraishyk street 38, apt. 24 
Position: First Deputy Prosecutor of Nur-Sultan

Participation in human rights violations: Abilov decided to cancel the order to provide the lawyer and relatives of Dulat Agadil with copies of the video recordings from the security cameras in the pre-trial detention facility.

Myrzakerov Bauyrzhan

Myrzakerov Bauyrzhan Kypshakuly

Date of birth: 7 April 1975
ID card: 036255620
Passport number: N07378711
Address: Nur-Sultan, residential area Ak-Бұлақ-3, Tasshoky lane 3, apt. 5
Position: Prosecutor of Nur-Sultan

Participation in human rights violations: Myrzakerov replied to the lawyer and relatives of Dulat Agadil that there were no signs of illegal actions in the way officers of the police and pre-trial detention facility behaved.

Ashyrbekov B.S. 

Position: Prosecutor 

Participation in human rights violations. On 17 October 2019, Prosecutor Ashyrbekov represented the state prosecution at the court session against Dulat Agadil.

Yeshtayev Sh.

Position: Prosecutor

Participation in human rights violations: On 10 June 2019, Yestayev supported the state prosecution at the trial against the activist Ilyas Sakidzhanov.

Sagatova G. S.

Position: Prosecutor 

Participation in human rights violations: On 10 June 2019, Sagatova supported the state prosecution against activist Ramazan Suleimenov, who was detained for his participation in a peaceful protest on 9 June 2019. Suleimenov was arrested for five days.

Shagirova A. S.

Position: Prosecutor

Participation in human rights violations: On 27 February 2020, Shagirova supported the state prosecution at a mobile night trial against human rights activist Anna Shukeyeva. Shukeyeva was detained for her participation in a protest action in honour of the killed activist Dulat Agadil. At the request of Shagirova, Shukeyeva was fined in the amount of 50 MCI (about 265 euro).

Otemis S.

Position: Prosecutor

Participation in human rights violations: On 7 August 2020, Prosecutor Otemis supported the state prosecution at the trial against the activist Aigul Utepova. At the request of the prosecutor, Utepova was found guilty for her post on Facebook calling to participate in a peaceful rally and was arrested for 7 days.

Kayyrbek Nurzhan Kabidenuly

Position: Judge of the Specialised Inter-District Administrative Court in Nur-Sultan

Participation in human rights violations: On 10 June 2019, he issued a politically motivated decision on the arrest for 5 days of activist Ilyas Sakidzhanov under Article 488 Part 1 on charges of participation in an illegal rally.

Doshchanova Asiya

Doshchanova Asiya Sulemenovna

Position: Judge of the Specialised Inter-District Administrative Court in Nur-Sultan.

Participation in human rights violations: On 2 April 2019, Judge Doshchanova fined a journalist Svetlana Glushakova 8,838 tenge (about 20 euro) for allegedly pushing a girl during a protest action on 22 March 2019. Glushkova covered the protest and was detained by the police. She was held for over 5 hours at the police station. Soon an unknown girl filed a statement against the journalist that Glushkova allegedly pushed her during the action. Human rights activists considered the case as an attempt by the authorities to obstruct the work of the journalist. On 10 June 2019, Judge Doshchanova issued a decision on administrative arrest for 5 days of activist Ramazan Suleimenov for participation in a peaceful protest action.

Isayeva Akmaral

Isayeva Akmaral Serikovna

Position: Judge of the Yesilskiy District Court of Nur-Sultan.

Participation in human rights violations: On 10 June 2019 Judge Isayeva issued a politically motivated decision on the administrative arrest for 5 days of activist Konstantin Demchenko for participation in a peaceful protest action.

Dyusebayev Adilbek

Dyusebayev Adilbek Ilyasovich

Position: Judge of the Specialised Inter-District Administrative Court in Nur-Sultan.

Participation in human rights violations: On 27 February 2020, Judge Dyusebayev conducted a mobile night court trial of human rights activist Anna Shukeyeva. Dyusebayev found her guilty of participating in an illegal rally and fined her 50 MCI (approximately 265 euro).

Imanaliyev Kanat Serikovich 

Position: Judge of the Specialised Inter-District Administrative Court in Nur-Sultan.

Participation in human rights violations: On 18 February 2020, Judge Imanaliyev issued a politically motivated decision to arrest the activist Zubaida Seidakhmetova for 15 days. The activist was accused of organising an illegal rally (under Article 488 Part 3 of the Code of Administrative Offences). On 6 August 2020 Judge Imanaliyev issued a politically motivated decision on the administrative arrest for 15 days of activist Serik Zhahin under Article 488 of the Code of Administrative Offences.

Akhmetkaliyev Bauyrzhan Nursapanovich

Year of birth: 24 July 1980
Position: Judge of the Specialised Inter-District Administrative Court in Nur-Sultan.

Participation in human rights violations: On 10 December 2019, Judge Akhmetkaliyev handled administrative cases against protest participants near the Delegation of the European Union in Nur-Sultan on 26 – 27 November 2019. The protesters complained about human rights violations in Kazakhstan. On 30 July 2020, Judge Akhmetkaliyev issued a politically motivated decision on the administrative arrest of activists Yerbol Yeskhozhin and Aitbai Kasymov.

Kaydarova Aigul

Kaydarova Aigul Gabdrasulevna

Position: Judge of the Specialised Inter-District Administrative Court in Nur-Sultan.

Participation in human rights violations: On 7 August 2020, Judge Kaidarova sentenced the activist Aigul Utepova to administrative arrest for 7 days for “calling for participation in an unauthorised rally”.

Merzadinova Dinara

Merzadinova Dinara Stalbekovna 

Passport number: N09544740
Date of birth: 10 March 1983
Address: Nur-Sultan, Sultanmahmud Toraigyrov street 2, apt. 80 
Position: Judge of the Tselinograd District Court of Akmola region

Participation in human rights violations: On 17 October 2019, Judge Merzadinova issued a politically motivated decision to arrest Dulat Agadil for 15 days. During the trial, the activist allegedly insulted Judge Merzadinova, after which a criminal case was opened against him. In the period from 30 August 2020 to 4 September 2020 Judge Merzadinova was conducting trials against the participants of the memorial ceremony in honour of the deceased activist Dulat Agadil. By decisions of Judge Merzadinova, 36 activists were arrested or fined. Dinara Merzadinova is the niece of former Chief Military Prosecutor Yergali Merzadinov.

Akhmetova Aigul

Akhmetova Aigul Kalidulovna

Date of birth: 28 June 1975
ID card: 038020238
Passport number: N09770868
Address: Nur-Sultan, Saken Seyfullin street 9, apt. 97 
Position: Judge of the Tselinograd District Court of Akmola region.

Participation in human rights violations: In the period from 30 July 2020 to 7 September 2020, Judge Akhmetova conducted trials against participants of memorials in honour of the dead activist Dulat Agadil. By decision of the judge, 34 people were arrested or fined.

Among others, Akhmetova convicted activist Alma Nurusheva for helping the Agadil family wash dishes after the memorial dinner.

Temirov Zhanat

Temirov Zhanat Kulatayevich

Date of birth: 3 January 1967
ID card: 032766918
Address: Nur-Sultan, Maksut Nerikbayev street 10, apt. 148 
Position: Judge of the Tselinograd District Court of Akmola region

Participation in human rights violations: On 11 February 2020, Judge Temirov authorised a change in the preventive measure for Dulat Agadil from house arrest into custody. In his decision, Judge Temirov did not specify the period for which the arrest of the Agadil was authorised. From 30 July 2020 to 23 August 2020 Judge Temirov was conducting trials against the participants of the memorial ceremony in honour of the dead activist Dulat Agadil. By decision of Judge 21 activist was arrested or fined.

Turgambayev Tolegen

Turgambayev Tolegen

Date of birth: 31 May 1967
ID card: 033793792
Passport: N11102542
Address: Akmol village, Nauryz street 29
Position: Chairman of the Tselinograd District Court of Akmola region

Participation in human rights violations: In the period from 24 August 2020 to 29 August 2020, Judge Turgambayev conducted trials against participants in the memorial ceremony in honour of the dead activist Dulat Agadil. By decision of the judge, 4 people were arrested for 10 days under Article 488 of the Code of Administrative Offences.

Valitova Valentina Vitalievna 

Position: Judge of the Tselinograd District Court of Akmola region

Participation in human rights violations: In the period from 24 August 2020 to 1 September 2020, Judge Valitova conducted trials against participants of memorials in honour of the dead activist Dulat Agadil. By decision of the judge, 9 people were arrested or fined.

AKTOBE

In the period from September 2019 to October 2020, at least 129 activists were subjected to politically motivated persecution in Aktobe. As a result of police actions, two activists were killed: Amanbike Khairolla and Serik Orazov.

Urazalin Ondasyn

Urazalin Ondasyn Seilovich

Date of birth: 6 November 1963
Position: Akim of Aktobe region
Additional information: Chairman of the Aktobe branch of the party Nur-Otan, Member of the National Commission for the implementation of the program of modernization of public consciousness under the President of Kazakhstan, former Deputy Head of the Presidential Administration Nursultan Nazarbayev.

Participation in human rights violations: According to activists and human rights defenders, the Akimat, which is headed by Ondasyn Urazalin, is directly involved in political persecution of activists and human rights defenders in Aktobe region.

According to human rights activist Altynay Tuksikova, in November 2019, representatives of the Akimat of the Aktobe region first asked her if she had any “social problems” that they could solve, and then threatened that if she did not stop doing social work, they would find any excuse to put her in prison and her minor child would be left without her. 

According to civil activist Roman Reichert, he was offered a “food basket” from the Aktobe region Akimat. Reichert refused to accept the “present” and then was subjected to politically motivated persecution. He was sentenced to one year’s imprisonment for supporting the opposition movement DCK.

Aryngaziyeva Aigul

Aryngaziyeva Aigul Amangasievna 

Date of birth: 20 January 1974
Position: Deputy Akim of Aktobe

Participation in human rights violations: In May 2019, Aryngaziyeva publicly justified the criminal prosecution of Aryn Bashbayev, a resident of Aktobe region. A criminal case was opened against Bashbayev for the fact that, on Instagram, he fouly expressed his comments under the post of Aktobe Akim Ilyas Ispanov. The criminal case was closed after Bashbayev publicly apologised for using obscene language.

According to activists from Aktobe, Aryngaziyeva is giving orders to persecute activists. It is reported that the Aktobe Regional Department of Internal Policy reports to Aryngaziyeva and under her order persecutes activists. According to human rights activist Altynay Tuksikova, Aryngaziyeva is involved in her persecution.

Kulov Bolat

Kulov Bolat Akhmetovich

Position: Akim of Khobda District, Aktobe Region

Participation in human rights violations: On 5 December 2019, while holding the position of Deputy Akim of Khobda District, he had a “conversation” with a relative of human rights activist Altynay Tuksikova and asked to influence her to stop her public activities.

Atabayev Bauyrzhan

Atabayev Bauyrzhan Akhmetovich 

Date of birth: 1969
Position: Head of the Aktobe Police Department
Additional information: Until February 2020, he held the position of Head of the Department for Combating Extremism of the Aktobe Region Police Department.

Participation in human rights violations: While holding the position of the head of the Aktobe city police department, Atabayev concealed information that in March 2020, more than 70 people administratively arrested at the Aktobe special detention facility went on hunger strike due to unacceptable conditions of detention (unsanitary, poor food)[1]. Human rights defenders Dana Zhanay and Altynay Tuksikova reported the hunger strike on social networks. For this, administrative proceedings were initiated against them and a fine was imposed of about 280 euro each.

Arystanov Atygay and Aliyev Kanat

Arystanov Atygay Gazambekovich

Date of birth: 19 November 1971
Position: Head of the Police Department of the Aktobe Region, Police Colonel (photo left)

Aliyev Kanat Sovetovich

Position: Deputy Chief of Aktobe Region Police Department (photo on the right)

Participation in human rights violations: Atygay Arystanov and his deputy, Kanat Aliyev, organize the persecution of activists and peaceful protesters in Aktobe. Arystanov directs police officers and gives them orders to persecute activists. On 21 September 2019, Aliyev participated in the dispersal of the peaceful protest in Aktobe. On that day, among others, Aliyev detained Dulat Agadil, after which the activist was arrested for 15 days.

Saimagambetov Ardana

Saimagambetov Ardana Muratovich 

Position: Head of the Local Police Service in the Aktobe region.

Participation in human rights violations: According to Kazakhstani legislation, the duties of the head of the Local Police Service include ensuring the protection of public order, monitoring the prevention of crime, supervising the work of district police officers, as well as juvenile police and road patrol police inspectors. According to local activists, Saimagambetov is personally responsible for political persecution in Aktobe.

Kupenov Aibek Muratkaliyevich

Date of birth: 18 September 1989 
IIN: 850918301322
Position: Deputy Head of the Internal Policy Department of the Aktobe region

Participation in human rights violations: According to human rights activist Dana Zhanay, Aibek Kupenov is involved in her persecution and in putting pressure on her relatives. According to Zhanay, Kupenov prevented her from working in a private clinic, which forced her to quit. Kupenov also sent tax inspectors to check on the workplace where Dana Zhanay’s mother works.

According to activists, Aibek Kupenov tried to persuade the activist Amanbike Khairolla to cooperate with the authorities and offered her a flat from the state for this. Khairolla refused Kupenov’s offer and after that she was persecuted by law enforcement agencies.

Bekmukhanov Vyacheslav

Bekmukhanov Vyacheslav

Position: Head of the Administrative Police Department in Aktobe, Lieutenant Colonel

Participation in human rights violations: On 22 February 2020, Bekmukhanov detained participants of peaceful rallies Serik Orazov and Asanali Suyubayev using brute force. On 1 March 2020, during a peaceful protest, Bekmukhanov forcefully dragged the activist Zhadyra Nugmanova into a prisoner transport vehicle.

Adaibayev Kazbek and Penayev Kuanysh

Adaibayev Kazbek Aibekovich (right on photo)

Position: District Police Officer of Almatinsky Regional Police Department in Aktobe, Captain. 

Penayev Kuanysh Nurylayevich (left on photo)

Position: Senior Assistant of District Officer of the Astana Region, Aktobe city, Senior Lieutenant 

Participation in human rights violations: On 26 February 2020, Adaibayev and Penayev came to activist Aklima Tuksikova’s workplace and drew up a resolution on the administrative violation for participation in the “unregistered party Koshe Partiasy”. According to the protocol, Tuksikova was fined 132,550 tenge (approximately 265 euro). 

On 22 February 2020, Penayev, together with several law enforcement officers, detained the activist Zhanna Yesmurzaeva and took her to the Sazdinskiy police department in Aktobe. Police officers detained Yesmurzayeva without showing her identity card and detention record, without giving any reasons, and with the use of brutal physical force. At the police station, Yesmurzayeva was interrogated for 4.5 hours and her right to a lawyer was denied. She was accused of participating in the “Koshe Partiyasy” movement.

Malayev Yerkin, Aliyev Yerbol, Yeshpanov Zhandos

Malayev Yerkin (left on photo)

Position: Head of the Local Police Service of the Zarechnoe Police Department of Aktobe, Lieutenant Colonel

Aliyev Yerbol (centre photo)

Position: presumably Police or NSC officer

Yeshpanov Zhandos (right on photo)

Position: Police Officer, Senior Lieutenant

Participation in human rights violations: On 7 November 2019, Malayev, Aliyev and Yeshpanov held a forcible detention of the activist Alibek Moldin in order to take him to the administrative court on the case of a single-person picket, which was previously held by Moldin. Moldin was detained as he was taking his 9-year-old daughter to school. His hands were wrung and he was shoved into a car. According to the activist, his daughter experienced severe stress from the detention. The court arrested the activist for 5 days for a single-person picket and an additional 10 days for “disobeying the legal demands of the police”. The activist Alibek Moldin has been systematically subjected to administrative prosecution for participation in protest rallies. In 2019 several questionable criminal cases were opened against him on charges of “insulting law enforcement officers”. In 2015, a group of small businessmen accused Yerkin Malayev and other district police officers of extorting money and threats.

Koilybayev Saken and Satayev Abzal

Koilybayev Saken (left photo)

Position: Senior Detective Officer of the Department of Combting Extremism of the Aktobe Police Department, Major Police 

Satayev Abzal Sautovich (photo on the right)

Position: Junior Police Lieutenant 

Participation in human rights violations: On 9 May 2019 Koilybayev and Satayev stopped the car of activist Alibek Moldin. They demanded he exit the car under the pretext of checking the trunk. Then Moldin was forcibly detained and taken to the Zarechny District Department of Internal Affairs, where he was held until evening. During the detention, the police broke the glass in his car. Koilybayev is also involved in other politically motivated persecutions. He has been following human rights activist Dana Zhanay. On 3 July 2018, Koilybayev and his partner Saparbek forcefully pushed Zhanay into their car and drove her to the prosecutor’s office. There she was forced to sign a document that she was warned of criminal responsibility for being a member of the Telegram chat of the opposition movement DCK. Moreover, Zhanay’s relatives were threatened and pressured by Koilybayev.

On 22 February 2020, Koilybayev participated in the forcible detention and beating of peaceful protesters in Aktobe. Koilybayev pushed and threw activist Alma Berdiyeva to the ground and took her phone away.

On 11 June 2020, Saken Koilybayev together with district police officer Ruslan Sagyntayev delivered a summons to the civil activist Ruslan Suyundykov to question him as a witness in a criminal case.

Sydykbayev Bakytbek

Sydykbayev Bakytbek Tusupbekovich 

Date of birth: 1984
Position: Head of the Local Police Service of the Aktobe Department of Internal Affairs in 2018-2019

Participation in human rights violations: On 9 June 2019, Sydykbayev participated in the dispersal of peaceful protesters near the Akimat of the Aktobe region. During the detention one of the activists Karlygash Asanova allegedly “resisted” the detention. Namely, she allegedly pricked Sydykbayev in the buttock with a pin. For this, a criminal case was opened against Asanova on charges of “using violence against a government official”. The policeman’s underwear and the needle were attached to the material evidence in the case. Asanova denies that she pricked the policeman. In October 2019, the Aktobe City Court sentenced Asanova to 1.5 years of restricted freedom. Asanova was punished with a fine of about 112 euro for participating in a rally on 9 June 2019. After the incident with Asanova, Sydykbayev was promoted to the rank of colonel and transferred to another region.

Abdullin Yedil

Abdullin Yedil

Position: Investigator of the Aktobe Police Department, Lieutenant Colonel of Police

Participation in human rights violations: According to local human rights activists, Abdullin systematically summons activists and participants in peaceful protests in Aktobe for questioning in order to intimidate them with criminal responsibility. Abdullin also interrogates and intimidates peaceful “Koshe Partiyasy” members. On 11 June 2020, Abdullin summoned the activist Ruslan Suyundykov for questioning. On 17 July 2020, he summoned the activist Askar Kalasov for questioning.

Dyusenov Dauren

Dyusenov Dauren Kanatovich

Position: District Police Officer of Aktobe, Senior Police Lieutenant

Participation in human rights violations: On 27 February 2020, Alma Berdiyeva was charged with an administrative violation “for participation in the unregistered party “Koshe”. At the same time, during the hearing in the administrative court, the police did not provide evidence that Berdiyeva is a member of the “Koshe Partiyasy”. Berdiyeva was fined 50 MCI (approximately 265 euro).

On 1 March 2020, the day of the planned peaceful rally in Aktobe, Dauren Dyusenov and two men used force to arrest Alma Berdiyeva and her sister Kamshat Berdiyeva. The detention was carried out far away from the declared site of the rally. The activists were dragged by force into the car and the police tried to take away their phones. Kamshat Berdiyeva was injured by police. After the interrogation, she asked for medical help.

On 15 May 2020, Dauren Dyusenov came to Alma Berdiyeva and drew up a protocol on the administrative offence that allegedly took place on 22 February 2020, the day of the peaceful rally. It is worth mentioning that from the moment of committing the alleged offense almost 3 months had passed. According to Kazakhstani legislation, a protocol on an administrative offence should be drawn up immediately after the discovery of the offence.

Kolumbayev Bekbulat

Kolumbayev Bekbulat Zhumataevich 

Date of birth: 10 January 1980
Position: Head of the Department of Justice of the Aktobe region.

Participation in human rights violations: In 2019, Kolumbayev initiated an audit of the notarial activities of private notary Alma Berdiyeva, although there were no legal grounds for this. For more than 22 years of professional activity, Alma Berdiyeva has not received a single disciplinary sanction. However, after she started taking part in peaceful protests and criticizing the authorities, she was pressured by the management of the Department of Justice and the Notarial Chamber of the Aktobe Region.

Korganbekov Gaidarali and Musina Manshuk

Korganbekov Gaidarali Sansyzbayevich 

Position: Chairman of the Chamber of Notaries of the Aktobe region.

Musina Manshuk Zhakatovna

Position: Chairman of the Disciplinary Commission of the Chamber of Notaries of the Aktobe region.

Participation in human rights violations: Since 2019, the management of the Notary Chamber of the Aktobe Region has systematically and groundlessly subjected the activist Alma Berdiyeva to disciplinary sanctions for her criticism of the Kazakhstani authorities and the Notary Chamber. Berdiyeva is a private notary and a member of the Chamber of Notaries. In 2019, for no good reason, the management of the Chamber of Notaries imposed several disciplinary sanctions on her. Berdiyeva links the pressure to her civil position and believes that this is how they want to strip her of her licence to work as a notary.

Kaliyev Ramazan

Kaliyev Ramazan

Date of birth: 27 January 1998
IIN 980127351088
ID card: 045167894
Address: Aktobe, I. Altynsarina street 2, apt. 2 
Position: District Police Officer, Lieutenant

Participation in human rights violations: On 15 May 2020, district police officer Kaliyev tried to detain 68-year-old activist Serik Orazov, held him by force, pushed him and prevented him from entering the building. The activist’s son reports that when Serik Orazov tried to escape into the house, a police officer grabbed him by the neck. Immediately after that Serik Orazov, before he could reach the flat, fell and died. The State Medical Examiner concluded that Orazov’s cause of death was cardiovascular failure. On 26 June 2020, district police officer Kaliyev was acquitted and the case against him was closed for “lack of corpus delicti”.

Beketov Serik

Beketov Serik

Position: presumably NSC employee, Senior Major

Participation in human rights violations: On 9 May 2019, two law enforcement officers dressed in civilian clothes detained Dana Zhanay. One of the officers introduced himself as Serik Beketov. When they arrested her, they used brute physical force — they grabbed her hands and tried to take away her phone. The agents tried to hide their faces from the camera and wore black masks on their faces.

Akmanov Saken

Position: Aktobe District Police Officer

Participation in human rights violations: On 6 June 2020, Akmanov, together with another district police officer who refused to introduce himself, detained civil activist Lyazat Ashikbayeva. The activist claims that she was detained under false pretences to prevent her from participating in a peaceful rally that day. Ashikbayeva was forcibly put in a car, which left her with abrasions and bruises on her hands. The activist’s son videotaped the detention process, but he was forced to delete the videotape.

Akylzhanov Akimzhan and Tleubayev Ruslan

Akylzhanov Akimzhan (photo left)

Position: District Police Officer

Tleubayev Ruslan (photo on the right)

Position: District Police Officer

Participation in human rights violations: District Police Officers Akylzhanov and Tleubayev are systematically persecuting human rights activist Altynay Tuksikova. On 10 March 2020, Tleubayev filled in the report on the human rights activist under Article 489 of the Code of Administrative Offences. On 8 April 2020, Tleubayev filled in another report on the human rights activist under Article 478 of the Code of Administrative Offences.

Duyusov Aslan

Duyusov Aslan

Position: District Police Officer

Participation in human rights violations: On 22 February 2020, Duyusov stopped and later detained the activist Asylkhan Zhaubatyrov. Zhaubatyrov was held at the Sazdinskiy Police Department all night, after which he was taken to court, where he was fined 50 MCI (about 265 euro).

Kalybayev Arman

Kalybayev Arman

Position: Operative Investigator, Police Captain 

Participation in human rights violations: On 24 June 2020, Kalybayev delivered a summons for questioning to activist Bauyrzhan Sarkulov and his wife Elmira Sarkulova in order to intimidate the activist for participation in peaceful rallies and challenges.

 Baizhanov Mergen

Position: Aktobe Police Patrol Officer

Zhameshev Olzhas

Position: District Police Officer of Aktobe.

Participation in human rights violations: On 22 February 2020, the day of the peaceful rally, a group of police officers in two cars stopped without reason the car in which activists Alma Berdiyeva, Asylkhan Zhaubatyrov, Sagyndyk Bekeyev and Altynay Tuksikova were present. Among the police officers were patrolman Mergen Baizhanov, district police officer Olzhas Zhameshev and, presumably, NSC officer Yerbol Aliyev. Some of the officers were in civilian clothes. Police officers stole documents from one of the activists and used force (dragged them on the ground, tried to take away their phones) to detain the activists.

On 7 November 2019, Aliyev participated in the forcible detention of the activist Alibek Moldin when he was taking his child to school.

Amangeldiyev Azamat

Position: Police Investigator

Participation in human rights violations: On 9 June 2019, Amangeldiyev took part in dispersing a peaceful protest in Aktobe and detained activists. In particular, he took part in the arrest of activist Karlygash Asanova. A criminal case was opened against Asanova on charges of “using violence against a government official”. In October 2019, the Aktobe City Court sentenced Asanova to 1.5 years of restricted freedom.

Baktybayev M.M.

Position: Investigator

Participation in human rights violations: On 1 March 2020, investigator Baktybayev interrogated the activist Alibek Moldin and his wife Zhadyra Nugmanova, who had been detained at a peaceful protest action. During the interrogation, the investigator asked the activists about their participation in the “Koshe Partiyasy” movement. The interviews were conducted in the absence of the detainees’ lawyer. The spouses were kept at the police station for about 5 hours. As a result, Moldin was arrested for 10 days under Article 667 Part 2 of the Code of Administrative Offences for alleged “disobedience to police officers”.

Rustemov Nurlan

Position: Police investigator, Senior Lieutenant

Participation in human rights violations: On 6 June 2020, the day of a peaceful protest, Amangeldy Koyshybaнev, an activist, was interrogated at the Zarechny Police Department in Aktobe. That day, the activist was taken by Road Patrol Service staff to an intoxication centre, where he passed an alcohol intoxication test, which showed that the activist was sobre. After passing the test, the activist was not given any evidence that he was sobre, and from there he was immediately illegally taken to the Zarechny Police Department, where he was interrogated by investigator Rustemov.

Yerubayeva Akzhaiyk

Position: Investigator of the City Police Department No. 1 of Aktobe

Participation in human rights violations: On 6 June 2020, the day of a peaceful protest, Yerubayeva interrogated activist Garifulla Embergenov at City Police Station No. 1. The activist was taken for questioning directly from the hospital where he was taken after his arrest. During the interrogation, the investigator asked about Embergenov’s participation in the “Koshe Partiyasy” movement and threatened him with criminal responsibility.

Toleshov S.M. (left on photo)

Toleshov S. and Sarsenov G.

Position: Police Officer 

Sarsenov G. (right on photo)

Position: Police Officer 

Participation in human rights violations: On 1 March 2020, the day of a peaceful rally, police officers Toleshov and Sarsenov detained the activist Alibek Moldin and his wife Zhadyra Nugmanova using brutal physical force. A few days before the arrest, Toleshov and Sarsenov had followed Moldin near his house and chased him by car.

Otemisov

Otemisov (name unknown)

Position: District Police Officer of Aktobe, Captain

Participation in human rights violations: Otemisov took part in the arrest of activist Karlygash Asanova, who was subsequently fined 50 MCI (approximately 265 euro) on politically motivated charges. Asanova claims that Otemisov gave false testimony in her case.

Zhetpisbayeva Zhuldyz

Zhetpisbayeva Zhuldyz

Position: Prosecutor 

Participation in human rights violations: Zhetpisbayeva participated as a public prosecutor in a trial against civil activist Karlygash Asanova, who was accused of “using violence against a representative of the authorities”. In October 2019, the Aktobe City Court sentenced Asanova to 1.5 years of restricted freedom.  Zhetpisbayeva asked the court to sentence Asanova to 1.5 years in prison.

Sambayev K.

Position: Prosecutor

Participation in human rights violations: Sambayev participated as a state prosecutor in the trials against participants in a peaceful protest action of 1 March 2020 in Aktobe. The activist Alibek Moldin was sentenced to 10 days of administrative arrest, and a warning was issued against a 68-year-old activist, Serik Orazov.

Khamiyev Dauren Bulatovich 

Date of birth: 1982
Position: Judge of the Specialised Administrative Court of Aktobe

Participation in human rights violations: On 1 March 2020, Khamiyev issued a decision on the arrest of the activist Alibek Moldin for 10 days, as well as a warning order against the 68-year-old activist Serik Orazov. The activists were detained for their intention to take part in a peaceful action and accused of “disobedience to a police officer” (Article 667 of the Code of Administrative Offences of the Republic of Kazakhstan).

Almasbayeva Botagoz 

Almasbayeva Botagoz Almasbayevna

Date of birth: 6 February 1974
Position: Judge of the City Court of Aktobe

Participation in human rights violations: On 28 October 2019, she upheld the decision to impose a disciplinary sanction on civil activist Alma Berdiyeva. Alma Berdiyeva works as a private notary and claims to have been pressured by the Aktobe Region Chamber of Notaries and the Aktobe Region Department of Justice after she started participating in protests and criticising the authorities. According to Berdiyeva, the Chamber of Notaries has been subjecting her to disciplinary sanctions without cause.

ALMATY

In the period from September 2019 to October 2020, at least 312 activists were subjected to politically motivated persecutions in Almaty.

Kudebayev Serik and Bekturov Izbasar

Kudebayev Serik Myrzakulovich (left on photo)

Date of birth: 1 January 1965
Address: Almalybak village, Karasaraiskiy district, Almaty region, Akkaiyn street 4 
ID card: 026969537
Passport number: N12957777
Position: Head of the Almaty Region Police Department 

Bekturov Izbasar Tlebaldiyevich (right on photo)

Position: Deputy Head of the Department of Internal Affairs of Almaty

Participation in human rights violations: Kudebayev and Bekturov were repeatedly seen coordinating the dispersal of peaceful protests and mass arrests of peaceful protesters. According to activists, on 1 May 2019 it was Kudebayev who gave the order to detain the protesters. On 6 July 2019 Kudebayev participated in the suppression and detention of peaceful protesters in Almaty, commanding the police and SOBR officers. Bekturov participated in coordinating the arrests of peaceful protesters on the 10 May 2018 and 22 March 2019.

Timirdenov Kanat

Timerdenov Kanat Daniyarovich

Date of birth: 7 November 1974
Address: Almaty, Rayimbek Avenue 241г, apt. 34
ID card: 026468988
Passport number: N07991006
Position: Head of the Almaty City Police Department; previously Head of the Mangistau Region Internal Affairs Department, Police Colonel

Participation in human rights violations: As Head of the Department of Internal Affairs of the Mangistau Region, he participated in the politically motivated criminal prosecution of blogger Zhambyl Kobeisinov and his wife Dilbar Begzhanova. On 22 May 2019, together with the Chief of Police of the Mangistau Region Rashid Kuandykov, he came “to negotiate” with Kobeisinov.  He promised to close all criminal cases in exchange for stopping “activism” on YouTube, but ultimately reneged on this promise.

A criminal case was opened against Zhambyl Kobeisinov and his wife Dilbar Begzhanova in a private suit by Rashid Kuandykov, head of the Mangistau Regional Police Department. According to the prosecution, Kobeisinov allegedly slandered Kuandykov in a video on YouTube. Kobeisinov and Begzhanov recorded a video message of apology at Kuandykov’s request, but the suit was not withdrawn. On 13 December 2019, the court sentenced Zhambyl Kobeisinov to 6 months’ imprisonment and Dilbar Begzhanov to 6 months’ restriction of liberty.

Sarsenbayev Bekzhan

Sarsenbayev Bekzhan Kaliyevich

Position: Head of the Domestic Policy Department of Almaty for the Bostandyk District

Participation in human rights violations: On 6 July 2019 Sarsenbayev personally supervised the arrests of peaceful protesters in Almaty. In particular, he instructed police officers as to who among the peaceful protesters should be detained.  

Inkarov Yerkin

Inkarov Yerkin Ilyasovich

Position: Head of the Criminal Police Department of the Almaty City Police Department (formerly Head of the Department of Combating Extremism of the Almaty City Police Department), Police Colonel

Participation in human rights violations: On 13 July 2020 he put pressure on the actor and musician Talgat Kenzhebulatov. Inkarov threatened him with arrest for a video that was filmed 4 years ago (Kenzhebulatov recorded a joke video playing a policeman). Inkarov forced the actor to record an apology and did not allow a lawyer to see him. In total, Kenzhebulatov was held at the station for about 5 hours.

Murataliyev Zhandos Duisenbayevich

Position: Head of the Administrative Police Department in Almaty, Colonel

Participation in human rights violations: By virtue of his position, Murataliyev is responsible for human rights violations in pre-trial detention facilities and special detention facilities in Almaty. Most often, detainees complain about conditions in detention facilities, torture, bullying and threats. Detention facility staff most often conceal violations of detainees’ rights. On 9 May 2019, an egregious case occurred when, together with her activist mother Oksana Shevchuk, a 7-month-old child was taken to a pre-trial detention facility“There were no warm clothes on Eva (Shevchuk’s daughter). I was not allowed to change her nappy. We were told that we would just go in and out. When they let us out of the detention facility, it was midnight.

Aidynuly Maksat

Position: Police Officer

Participation in human rights violations: On 29 February 2020, he supervised the detention of Darkhan Valiyev, a participant in a one-man picket. The detention was conducted with the use of unjustified force. Police officers led by Aidynuly tore Valiyev’s poster up and pulled him into their car.

Salayev Adil

Salayev Adil

Position: Head of the Investigations Division of the Almaty Police Department

Participation in human rights violations: Adil Salayev is the head of all investigators at the Almaty Police Department. It is Salayev who gives orders to detain and conduct investigations in relation to activists. According to human rights activists, Salayev keeps a record of activists and has a file on them. Salayev’s subordinates regularly detain and interrogate activists and prevent them from protesting. Salayev organised the persecution of activists – mothers of many children – Oksana Shevchuk, Gulzipa Dzhaukerova and Zhazira Demeuova – who had criminal proceedings brought against them.

Yerzhanova Tolganay

Yerzhanova Tolganay Abdullayevna 

Date of birth: 3 November 1986
Address: Almaty, Kulager microdistrict 33, apt. 24 
ID card: 032159495
Passport number: N07707778
Position: Senior Investigator for Special Cases of the Almaty City Police Department, Lieutenant Colonel of Police

Participation in human rights violations: Suspected of falsifying criminal cases against journalist Yulia Kozlova and activists Almat Zhumagulov and Kenzhebek Abisheva. She is also involved in criminal proceedings against activists and the mothers of many children – Oksana Shevchuk, Gulzipa Dzhaukerova and Zhazira Demeuova. On 13 June 2019, on her order, the bank cards of the activist and human rights defender and observer for the Italian Federation for Human Rights Daniyar Khassenov, and of his relatives, were blocked. Toglanay may have been involved in the illegal ban on Khassenov’s departure from Kazakhstan.

Almat Zhumagulov is an activist of the Far East Television and Radio Company. Kenzhebek Abishev is a poet and blogger. They were accused of “propaganda of terrorism” (part 2 of article 256 of the Criminal Code), and Zhumagulov was additionally accused of “incitement of national hatred” (Article 174 Part 1 of the Criminal Code). According to the charges, Zhumagulov and Abishev “distributed leaflets in support of the DCK programme” in order to “destabilise the situation in society”. In addition, they were accused of preparing a video message calling for “jihad”, although none of them is present in the video. The facts indicate that Abishev and Zhumagulov were the victims of provocation by Kazakhstan’s special services in order to label the opposition as “terrorists”. In the pre-trial detention facility, the investigators demanded that Abishev and Zhumagulov sign the indictment and refuse lawyers. They were threatened that “something could happen to their families”. According to Abishev, the investigators demanded that he “give an interview or write a post on Facebook against Mukhtar Ablyazov, the leader of the DCK”. Zhumagulov and Abishev were sentenced to 8 and 7 years in prison, respectively.

Oksana Shevchuk, Zhazira Demeuova and Gulzipa Dzhaukerova are activists from Almaty. Shevchuk is a mother with many children, while Demeuova and Dzhaukerova are single mothers (the latter has a disabled baby in arms). They were charged with “participation in the activities of the organisation after its recognition as extremist” (Article 405 Part 2 of the Criminal Code). The investigation accused them of “active support of the ideas of the DCK and Ablyazov”. They were kept in custody for several months. On 19 November 2019 the court sentenced Shevchuk, Demeuova, Dzhaukerova to 1 year of restriction of liberty and a ban on participation in public organisations for 2 years.

Litvinenko Irina

Litvinenko Irina

Position: Senior Investigator of the Department for Investigation of Crimes against Public Order of the Almaty City Police Department

Participation in human rights violations: On 22 March 2019, investigator Litvinenko interrogated human rights activist Daniyar Khassenov. On 9 May 2019, together with investigator Tolganai Yerzhanova, she conducted a personal search of activist Zhazira Demeuova. On 22 August 2020 Litvinenko conducted an illegal search of the house of the activist Gulzipa Dzhaukerova. In 2020 Litvinenko was a prosecution witness at the trial against activist Asiya Tulesova. The court sentenced Tulesova to 1 year and 6 months of restriction of liberty under Articles 378 part 1 of the Criminal Code and Article 380 part 1 of the Criminal Code for “insult” and “use of violence” against police officers during a protest on 6 June 2020.

Aitzhanov Kuanysh and Shalkybayev Maksat

Aitzhanov Kuanysh Muratovich (left on photo)

Position: District Police Officer of the Almaty Internal Affairs Department

Shalkybayev Maksat Askarovich (right on photo)

Date of birth: 6 August 1988
Address: Almaty, Omarova street 89, apt. 9 
ID card: 035138639
Position: District Police Officer of the Almaty City Interior Department, Police Captain

Participation in human rights violations: On 1 June 2019 district officers Kuanysh Aitzhanov and Maksat Shalkybayev detained activist Sabyrzhan Kasenov on the basis of an empty summons. The police officers stated that they would issue the summons at the police station.

Ismanov Olzhas

Ismanov Olzhas

Participation in human rights violations: Ismanov participated in the detention of peaceful protesters during a protest action on 1 March 2020 in Almaty. In particular, Ismanov pushed an elderly woman into a prisoner transport vehicle. The protest action was held in connection with the death of civil activist Dulat Agadil in the pre-trial detention facility.

Position: Police Officer

Kusainov Madi

Kusainov Madi Zeynolovich

Date of birth: 1 May 1989
Address: Taldykorgan, Abay street 3 
Position: Detective Officer, Police Investigator, Captain

Participation in human rights violations: Kusainov participates in the persecution of the family of activist Erkin Kaziyev. During his arrest on 30 April 2019, Kaziyev was subjected to police brutality (Kusainov was one of the officers involved), which resulted in an injured leg and dislocated shoulder. Brutal force was also applied to Kaziyev’s wife. According to her, Kusainov jumped over the fence of their house, grabbed her and, pushing her to the ground, started screaming and threatening her.

Nurmetov Bauyrzhan

Nurmetov Bauyrzhan Bakhytzhanovich (photo)

Position: Police Officer

Adlet Gabituly

Position: Police Officer, Captain

Tolegenov Yelaman

Position: District Police Officer

Participation in human rights violations: On 6 June 2020, on the day of a peaceful protest in Almaty, Gabituly, Tolegenov and Nurmetov came home to activist Oryngul Kusainova with an explanation of the inadmissibility of going to the protest. She was not allowed to go to the protest.

Tulenov Azamat Isauly

Position: Police Officer, Captain

Abylay Archat

Position: Police Officer, Senior Lieutenant

Borumbayeva Aliya 

Position: Senior Police Investigator

Participation in human rights violations: On 9 May 2019, during peaceful protests, Azamat Tulenov and Abylay Arkhat detained the activist Dariga Rakym with the use of brute force and took her to the Almaty police department. There, she was interrogated for three hours by investigator Aliya Borumbayeva.

Nuriyev Nurtugan

Nuriyev Nurtugan

Position: Assistant District Police Oficer, Senior Lieutenant

Participation in human rights violations: On 15 February 2020, Nuriyev prevented Bakdaulet Alibekov, an activist, from holding a one-person picket. Nuriyev took photographs of the activist and his documents.

Zhunisbay Saken

Zhunisbay Saken Seyitbaiuly

Position: District Police Officer of the Medeu District Internal Affairs Office of Almaty, Senior Lieutenant 

Participation in human rights violations: On 1 July 2020, Zhunisbay and two partners detained civil activist Sayat Saulimbayev without explanation. The activist refused to go to the police station without a summons, so the summons was illegally filled in at the place of detention by Saken Zhunisbayev. The activist was allegedly detained for questioning.

Abdullayev Vladin

Abdullayev Vladin Ivullayevich 

Date of birth: 20 April 1988
Position: Investigator

Participation in human rights violations: On 11 March 2020, Abdullayev ordered the blocking of the bank accounts of activists Asim Shaikhasimova, Zhasaral Kuanyshalin, Kanat Dzhakupov and others.[1] The activists were not informed of the reason why their accounts were blocked, but presumably this was due to their inclusion on the list of persons “connected with financing terrorism and extremism”.  Abdullayev is also an investigator in a criminal case against the activist Zhazira Demeuova.

Chapurin Alexey

Chapurin Alexey

Position: Investigator of the Almaty City Police Department

Participation in human rights violations: On 3 July 2019, investigator Chapurin conducted a search of the house of activist Oksana Shevchuk. During the search, leaflets calling for a peaceful protest on 6 July 2019 were found. According to the activist, the leaflets were planted in her house by the police themselves during the search.

Serikov Syrym

Position: NSC employee

Participation in human rights violations: According to activists’ testimonies, since 2019 Serikov has been participating in interrogations of activists conducted by investigator Vladin Abdullayev. In particular, Serikov asks about the activists’ participation in the opposition movement – the DCK. On 1 September 2019 Serikov threatened human rights activist Daniyar Khassenov with 15 years in prison on charges of “espionage” for volunteering in the Italian Federation for Human Rights.

Yeszhanov J.

Yeszhanov J.

Position: Investigator 

Participation in human rights violations: Yeszhanov was involved in a criminal case against activist Yerkin Kaziyev. According to lawyer Gulnara Zhuaspaeva, on behalf of the accused and without his knowledge Yeszhanov signed a refusal to have an independent lawyer and engaged another lawyer for Kaziyev.

Sametov Abdulla

Sametov Abdulla 

Position: Police Officer, Captain

Participation in human rights violations: On 29 March 2020, Sametov and his partner conducted outdoor surveillance of Dilnar Insenova. They tried to break into the activist’s house, introducing themselves as “hoover salesmen”. Later, Sametov detained Insenova, who left the house with her young children.

Amanbekov Gabit

Amanbekov Gabit 

Position: District Police Officer

Participation in human rights violations: On 28 May 2020, he visited the house of activist Kanat Zhakupov and read out an explanation about the ban on supporting the “Koshe Partiyasy” movement in connection with its recognition as “extremist”.

Bukenov Didar

Position: District Police Officer of Medeu District, Almaty.

Participation in human rights violations: On 9 June 2019 Bukenov detained activist Sabyrzhan Kasenov and tried by force to take the phone from activist Asel Eskeldinova.

Myrzagulov

Myrzagulov (name unknown)

Position: Police Officer

Participation in human rights violations: On 5 June 2020 Myrzagulov detained activist Nurbolat Zhugunisov late in the evening before a protest. The activist was violently pushed into a private car. The detention took place without a subpoena. Having arrived at the Issyk District Department of Internal Affairs Myrzagulov showed the detainee the summons.

Zhanimanot Nursultan and Kenzhebayev Kazybek

Zhanimanov Nursultan (photo left)

Kenzhebayev Kazybek

Position: Presumed employees of SOBR

Participation in human rights violations: Zhanimanov and Kenzhebayev participated in the detention of peaceful protesters in Almaty on 9–12 June 2019 during protests against the falsification of presidential elections in Kazakhstan. They were dressed in special black uniforms without identification marks and detained protesters with particular cruelty.

On the day of the presidential elections, 9 June 2020, thousands of anti-government protests were held in various cities of Kazakhstan. The opposition movement DCK called for the rallies. The largest rallies were held in Almaty and Nur-Sultan. The rallies were violently dispersed by large law enforcement forces. Police officers, special police units and internal troops took part in the dispersal – none of them had any recognisable signs [21],[22]. The police also received commands from people in plain clothes – presumably secret service officers.

Kanbatyrov E. G.

Position: Prosecutor 

Participation in human rights violations: On 1 March 2020, Kanbatyrov acted as a public prosecutor at an administrative hearing against activist Diana Mukhametova. The court fined Mukhametova 30 MCI (approximately 160 euro).

Meyramkulov Berik

Position: Prosecutor

Participation in human rights violations: On 6 June 2020 he took part in the arrest of activist Gulsara Kusainova.

Baurzhanov Kenzhebekuly

Position: Senior Prosecutor of the Kaskelensky District of Almaty

Participation in human rights violations: On 16 December 2019, police officers in civilian clothes detained activist Abaibek Sultanbekov and took him to the police station. At the police station prosecutor Baurzhanov conducted an “explanatory talk” for Anaibek and threatened him with criminal responsibility for supporting the opposition movement DCK.

Nurakhayev Abzal

Nurakhayev Abzal Yesetovich

Position: Prosecutor

Participation in human rights violations: On 28 May 2020, he came to Kanat Zhakupov’s house and read out an explanation of the ban on supporting the Koshe Partiyasy movement in connection with its recognition as “extremist”.

Kulanbayev Yerlan

Kulanbayev Erlan

Position: Prosecutor

Participation in human rights violations: Acted as a public prosecutor at a court hearing in a criminal case against the activist Asiya Tulesova. The court sentenced Tulesova to 1 year and 6 months of restriction of freedom under Articles 378 Part 1 of the Criminal Code and Article 380 Part 1 of the Criminal Code for “insult” and “use of violence” against police officers during the protest on 6 June 2020.

Shakirov Taken

Shakirov Taken Shaumanovich

Date of birth: 23 May 1960
ID card: 038689225
Passport number: N09873194
Position: Judge of the Medeu District Court No. 2, Almaty. Judge Coordinator for public and media relations
Possible address of residence: Kazakhstan, Almaty region, Almaty, Aksay-4 microdistrict, building 10, flat 75.

Participation in human rights violations: On 12 August 2020 Judge Shakirov sentenced the activist Asia Tulesova to 1 year and 6 months of restriction of freedom under Articles 378 part 1 of the Criminal Code and Article 380 part 1 of the Criminal Code for “insult” and “use of violence” against police officers during the protest on 6 June 2020. In 2018, Judge Shakirov conducted a politically motivated trial against political hostage Iskander Yerimbetov, brother of human rights activist  Bota Jardemalie. On 22 October 2018 Judge Shakirov sentenced Yerimbetov to 7 years in prison with confiscation of property. The trial was held with multiple violations. The UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention found the sentence unlawful and politically motivated.

Alimbek Murat Serikkhanuly

Position: Judge of the Specialised Inter-District Administrative Court in Almaty

Participation in human rights violations: On 1 March 2020, Judge Alimbek imposed an administrative fine of 30 MCI on the activist Diana Mukhametova for violation of the legislation “on the organisation and holding of a peaceful assembly” (Article 488 Part 3 of the Code of Administrative Offence of the Republic of Kazakhstan).

Yesbergenova Sholpan

Yesbergenova Sholpan Yerlanovna

Position: Judge of the Specialised Inter-District Administrative Court in Almaty.

Participation in human rights violations: On 5 August 2020, Judge Yesbergenova handed down a politically motivated decision on the administrative arrest for 15 days of activist Ruslan Iminakhunov under Article 488 of the Code of Administrative Offences.

Keldybayev Gylym Petrovich

Position: Judge of the Specialised Inter-District Administrative Court in Almaty.

Participation in human rights violations. On 5 August 2020, Judge Keldybayev issued a politically motivated decision on an administrative fine in the amount of US$332 for activist Zhanna Yntymakova under Article 488 of the Code of Administrative Offences.

AKTAU

In the period from September 2019 to October 2020, at least 50 activists were politically persecuted in Aktau.

Omarov Madiyar

Omarov Madiyar

Date of birth: 1978
Position: Head of the Aktau City Police Department, Lieutenant Colonel of Police

Participation in human rights violations: On 3 June 2020, he took away the identity card of activist Aisha Yusup. He led the actions of the police officers who detained and interrogated activists Aisha Yusup and Balzhan Bekmukhanbetova for 6.5 hours.

Khalmuradov Amangeldy

Khalmuradov Amangeldy Hairmukhammeduly 

Date of birth: 22 June 1968
Position: First Deputy Head of the Mangistau Region Police Department

Participation in human rights violations: On 6 June 2020 the activist Aigul Akberdy was detained on her way to the city square, where a peaceful protest action was planned. Akberdy was taken to the police station and interrogated for over 3 hours.

Kuandykov Rashid

Kuandykov Rashid Dzhumagaliyevich

Position: Police chief of Mangistau district, Former chief of police department of Munaylinskiy district, Police Colonel
Date of birth: 14 October 1971
IIN: 711014302559
Address: Aktau, microdistrict 14, house number 38, apt. 64 
ID card: 041780690
Passport: N09112987

Participation in human rights violations: Kuandykov is involved in the politically motivated persecution of blogger Zhambyl Kobeisinov and his wife Dilbar Begzhanova. A criminal case was opened against them in a private lawsuit brought by Rashid Kuandykov. According to the prosecution, Kobeisinov allegedly slandered Kuandykov in a video on YouTube. 

Kobeisinov and Begzhanov recorded a video message of apology at Kuandykov’s demand, but the suit was not withdrawn. On 13 December 2019, the court sentenced Zhambyl Kobeisinov to 6 months’ imprisonment and Dilbar Begzhanov to 6 months’ restriction of liberty.

Sultanov Kaybol and Kaliyev Altynbek

Sultanov Baybol (left photo)

Position: Head of the Department for Combating Extremism, Lieutenant Colonel

Kaliyev Altynbek (photo right)

Position: Deputy Head of the Mangistau Region Police Department, Major

Akshauov Bolat

Position: Police Officer, Colonel

Korganbayev Beckbolat

Position: Investigator

Dzhanabayev Mangystau

Position: Investigator

Participation in human rights violations: According to activists, Sultanov is involved in politically motivated prosecutions in the Mangistau region. Yerzhan Yelshibayev, an activist, said that in April 2019 an employee of the Police Department named Baybol suggested that he slander human rights activist Galym Ageleuov and journalist of Radio Azattyq (Radio Liberty) Saniya Toiken, and also to say that he took money from opposition politician Mukhtar Ablyazov. For this, employees Baybol promised to close the criminal case against Yerzhan Yelshibayev.[1]

Akshaukov, Kaliyev, Korganbayev and Dzhanabayev participated in the fabrication of the criminal case against Yerzhan Yelshibayev. They fraudulently tried to force the activist to delete the video on his YouTube channel and stop going to the akimat and demanding employment. In return they promised him a flat and a car On 17 October 2019, the court sentenced the activist Yerzhan Yelsibayev to 5 years in prison on charges of “intentional infliction of grievous bodily harm on the grounds of hooliganism” (Article 106 part 2 of the Criminal Code) for events that allegedly occurred in 2017. Yelshibayev’s persecution began after he took part in peaceful protests by the unemployed in Zhanaozen in February 2019. The unemployed were demanding employment and social protection.

Shagirbayev M.

Shagirbayev M.

Position: Senior investigator

Participation in human rights violations: On 12 June 2019 Shagirbayev summoned for questioning activist Nuriyash Abdraimova. During the interrogation, the investigator asked if she supported the opposition movement DCK, whether she knew that the organisation was “extremist”, who financed the activist, and whether she would attend rallies. Shagirbayev did not hand the activist the interrogation report.

Kirgabakov Abzal Dzhangilbayevich

Position: District Police Officer, Captain

Participation in human rights violations: On 16 December 2019, the day of a peaceful rally, former political prisoner Ablovas Dzhumayev was preventively detained. On 18 February 2020 he took part in the arrest of Dzhumayev, who was later arrested for 5 days for demanding a fair trial for the activist Zhambyl Kobeisinov.

Nurpeisov Serik

Nurpeisov Serik (photo)

Position: Police Major

Kirkabakov Abzal

Position: District Police Captain

Participation in human rights violations: On 3 August 2020, Nurpeisov rudely threatened activists and pushed activist Ulbolsyn Turdiyeva. On 6 August 2020 Nurpeisov twisted the arms and legs of activist Sholpan Dzhanzakova, demanding to go to the police station with him. On 6 August 2020 Nurpeisov and Kirkabakov detained and brought to the Local Police Station activists Balzhan Bekmukhanbetova and Aisha Yusup.

Mahmutov Nurzhan and Khaitbekov Bekbol

Mahmutov Nurzhan (photo left)

Position: Lieutenant Colonel of Police

Khaitbekov Bekbol (photo right)

Position: NSC employee 

Kaliyev Beldiyar

Position: Police Officer

Kartkuzhakov Miras

Position: Criminal Investigation Police Officer in Aktau

Chushbayev Berdi

Position: Police Officer

Kaimov Nurlan

Position: Prosecutor

Participation in human rights violations: On 19 July 2020, Nurzhan Mahmutov gave the order to detain civil activists Ulbolsyn Turdiyeva and Aisha Yusup. During the detention Mahmutov insulted the girls. Beldiyar Kaliyev executed the order to detain the activists. In the Aktau police department, Miras Kartkuzhakov and Bekbol Khaitbekov abused the activist Aisha Yusup. She spent five hours at the police station. The officers exerted psychological pressure on her, tried to access her phone, forced her to remove the video of detention recorded by the activist and removed her phone with violation. Berdi Chushbayev interrogated Ulbolsyn Turdiyeva. Prosecutor Nurlan Kaimov witnessed Turdieva’s interrogation and ignored her complaints against police officers and her requests for help.

Aidarbayev Amangali

Position: Prosecutor 

Participation in human rights violations: On 18 February 2020 Aidarbayev acted as a public prosecutor in an administrative case against the activist Ablovas Dzhumayev. Dzhumayev was accused of violating the law on “peaceful assemblies” for coming to the trial in the case of the activist Zhambyl Kobeisinov and demanding a fair trial.

Atasheva Ayida Orynkhanovna 

Date of birth: 20 January 1975
Position: Judge of the Specialised Administrative Court in Aktau

Participation in human rights violations: On 18 February 2020, Judge Atasheva sentenced the activist Ablovas Dzhumayev to administrative arrest for 5 days on charges of violating the law on “peaceful assembly”. (Article 488 Part 1 of the Code of Administrative Offences). Dzhumayev was charged for having come to the trial in the case of activist Zhambyl Kobeisinov demanding a fair trial.

Suyeuova Gulmira

Suyeuova Gulmira Alashovna

Position: Judge of the Specialised Administrative Court in Aktau
Date of birth: 26 October 1979

Participation in human rights violations: On 5 August 2020, Judge Suieuova imposed an administrative fine of 20 MCI (approximately 110 euro) under Article 667 (“disobeying a lawful request by a police officer”) on activist Lyazzat Ashikbayeva. Under the same article, Judge Suyeuova imposed the same fine on activists Balzhan Bekmukhanbetova and Aigul Muratbaeva. In total, from 5 August 2020 to 8 August 2020, Judge Suyeuova conducted trials against 4 activists. By decision of the judge, 2 activists were arrested and 2 received administrative fines. Earlier, on 27 September 2018, Suyeuova decided to impose an administrative fine of 25 MCI (about 140 euro) on a French journalist and film director Vincent Prado, who came to Kazakhstan to make a film about the Zhanaozen tragedy.

Nurmaganbetova Laura

Nurmaganbetova Laura

Position: Judge of the Specialised Administrative Court in Aktau
Date of birth: 30 June 1982

Participation in human rights violations: On 6 August 2020, Judge Nurmaganbetova imposed an administrative fine in the amount of 20 MCI under Article 667 of the Code of Administrative Offences (“disobeying a lawful request by a police officer”) on activist Aisha Yusup. On 7 August 2020, Judge Nurmaganbetova issued an administrative warning under Article 488 (“participation in an illegal rally”) against the activist Sholpan Dzhanzakova. On 7 August 2020, Judge Nurmaganbetova imposed an administrative fine of 50 MCI (approximately 280 euro) under Article 488 of the Code of Administrative Offences on the activist Balzhan Bekmukhanbetova. In total, from 6 August 2020 to 7 August 2020, Judge Nurmaganbetova conducted trials against 4 activists. By decision of the judge, 2 activists were arrested and 2 received administrative fines.

Konusov Altai Sembayevich

Position: Judge of the Specialised Administrative Court in Aktau

Participation in human rights violations:  On 5 August 2020, Judge Konusov decided on an administrative fine of 30 MCI under Article 488 Part 1 against the activist Lazzat Ashikbayeva. On 7 August 2020, Judge Konusov decided on an administrative fine of 20 MCI under Article 667 Part 1 with regard to the activist Sholpan Dzhanzakova. On 7 August 2020 Judge Konusov imposed an administrative fine of 30 MCI under Article 488 Part 6 on the activist Aisha Yusup. In total, from 5 August 2020 to 7 August 2020, Judge Konusov conducted trials against 6 civil activists. By the decision of the judge 4 people were fined, 1 was arrested, and 1 received an administrative warning.

Aubakirov Murat

Aubakirov Murat Yeskendirovich

Date of birth: 20 July 1969
Position: Judge of the Mangistau Regional Court

Participation in human rights violations: On 7 August 2020, Judge Aubakirov issued a politically motivated decision on the administrative arrest of activist Abzal Kanaliyev for 7 days under Article 488 of the Code of Administrative Offences.

Komarova Natalya Yurievna 

Date of birth: 10 November 1973
Position: Judge at Court No. 2 in Aktau

Participation in human rights violations: On 7 August 2020, Judge Komarova handed down a politically motivated decision on the administrative arrest of activist Ulbolsyn Turdieva for 7 days under Article 488 of the Code of Administrative Offences.

SEMEY

In the period from September 2019 to October 2020, at least 40 activists were politically persecuted in Semey.

Azhkhanov Murat

Azhkhanov Murat Talgatovich

IIN: 810830300567
Position: Head of the Department for Combating Extremism at the Department of Internal Affairs of the Semey Police Department

Participation in human rights violations: On 7 June 2019 Akhzhanov participated in the detention and unlawful arrest of the activist Ruslan Nurkanov. Moreover, on 24 July 2019, after the court hearing on the case of political prisoner Mukhtar Dzhakishev, Akhzhanov ignored the illegal actions of his subordinates, who were filming activists and observers on camera. Akhzhanov is participating in the prosecution of activist Kerbez Yeginbayeva. He called the activist and demanded she come to the police department to draw up a report on her administrative offence for her participation in the “Koshe Partiyasy” movement.

Asylkhanov Ardak and Nurakhmetov Azamat

Asylkhanov Ardak Nurkhanatovich (photo left)

Position: Officer of the Department for Combating Extremism at the Department of Internal Affairs in Semey

Nurakhmetov Azamat Sabyrovich (photo right)

Position: District Police Officer of the Semey Central Police Department, Senior Lieutenant

Bekeneyev A.

Position: Officer of the Central Police Department in Semey, Major

Participation in human rights violations: On 20 February 2020 Asylkhanov, Bekeneyev and Nurakhmetov detained activists Kuat Uvaliyev and Aliya Isenova for a picket in support of the movement “Koshe Partiyasy”. On 5 April 2020, Asylkhanov tried to detain activist Kerbez Yeginbayeva while she was walking with her child. On 16–17 March 2020, Nurakhmetov drew up a protocol on administrative violations against activists Aliya Isenova, Raigul Sadyrbayeva, Anar Kaliyeva and Kuat Uvaliyev for protest campaign activities in support of the movement “Koshe Partiyasy” under Article 489 Part 10 of the Code of Administrative Offences (“participation in an unregistered public association”). Nurakhmetov, with a police squad, detained the activists right in the building of the prosecutor’s office, where they were applying for protection of their rights. The activists were fined in the amount of 50 MCI (about 265 euro). Nurakhmetov was spotted persecuting the activist Aidyn Katpushev.

Yesenzholov Nurzhan

Yesenzholov Nurzhan Yergalievich

Position: Head of the Internal Policy Department of Semey city

Participation in human rights violations: According to local activists, Yesenzholov systematically persecutes participants of peaceful rallies in Semey – he makes lists of activists and collects information about them, and invites activists to “preventive talks” during which he threatens to establish criminal cases and exerts psychological pressure.

Okapov Zhasulan Asetovich

Position: Investigator at the Investigations Department of the Semey City Police Directorate

Participation in human rights violations: Okapov investigated a criminal case against activist Farit Ishmukhametov. For criticising the authorities in social networks and supporting the opposition movement, the activist was accused of “participation in the organisation’s activities after being declared extremist” (Article 405 Part 2 of the Criminal Code). During a search of the activist’s home, Okapov seized his phone and other equipment. Later he returned his phone in an inoperable condition. Ishmukhametov was sentenced to 1 year of restricted freedom and 100 hours of forced labour.

Nurmukhametov Azamat

Nurmukhametov Azamat Sabyrovich

Position: District Police Officer of the Semey Central Police Department

Participation in human rights violations: On 16 March 2020, Nurmukhametov arbitrarily detained activist Aliya Isenova, who was subsequently fined in the amount of 50 MCI (approximately 265 euro) for protest campaign activities in support of the “Koshe Partiyasy” movement. Nurmukhametov ignored the fact that Aliya’s elderly mother was left at home unattended, and her blood pressure subsequently rose.

Baydalinov Daniyar

Baydalinov Daniyar (photo) 

Position: Head of Investigation Department

Kozhetayev Yerzhan Berikkhanovich 

Position: Police Officer

Shynybayev Serik Kayratovich

Position: Police Officer

Participation in human rights violations: On 6 June 2020, the day of a peaceful protest in Semey, Kozhetayev and Shynybayev detained activist Aliya Isenova near the city square and took her for questioning to the Central Police Department. No record of the arrest was drawn up. The interrogation was conducted by the head of the investigation department, Baidalinov. The interrogation lasted 4 hours. Later, the activist was fined for failing to appear for questioning. Isenova claims that she did not receive a summons to appear for questioning.

Sultanov Sayat

Sultanov Sayat Bolatkhanuly 

Position: Police Officer

Participation in human rights violations: On 7 June 2019, Ruslan Nurkanov, an activist, was detained together with his partner for allegedly illegally discarding a cigarette stub. Moreover, the employees started accusing him of drug trafficking and made an attempt to plant drugs on Nurkanov, after which he was forced to undergo a medical examination at the narcological clinic.

Zholdabayev Berik

Position: Police Officer

Participation in human rights violations: On 25 February 2020, Zholdabayev took part in the forcible detention of activist Yerlan Keneshbayev. He took the activist’s phone by force. Keneshbayev was detained in connection with his intention to go to the funeral of civil activist Dulat Agadil, who had died in the Nur-Sultan detention facility.

Bapinov Kuat

Bapinov Kuat Kenzhebekovich

Position: Prosecutor

Participation in human rights violations: According to local activists, Bapinov systematically participates in the arbitrary persecution of participants of peaceful protests and campaign activities: he intimidates, blackmails and puts pressure on them. On 21 September 2019 at the Central Police Department of Semey, Bapinov mistreated the detained activist Tlegen Zhubanov. Police broke Zhubanov’s finger, broke his camera and took his phone away. Despite this, Bapinov refused to call an ambulance to the injured activist and forced him to sign an unknown document without his lawyer present. 

On 17 March 2020, Bapinov ordered the arrest of activists Raigul Sadyrbayeva, Anar Kaliyeva, Aliya Isenova and Kuat Uvaliyev, who had come to see Bapinov in order to protect their rights. The activists were subsequently convicted under Article 489 Part 10 of the Code of Administrative Offences and fined 50 MCI (132,550 tenge) for participation in an anti-government social media campaign.  After the ban on the peaceful movement “Koshe Partiyasy”, Bapinov issued warnings against activists Anar Kaliyeva, Nurzhan Sembayev, Aliya Isenova, Kerbez Yeginbayeva, Tlegen Zhubanov, Farit Ishmukhametov and Raigul Sadyrbayeva about the illegality of “participation in the activities of an extremist group” and threatened them with criminal prosecution.

Khamitov A.

Position: Prosecutor 

Participation in human rights violations: On 20 February 2020 Khamitov supported the state prosecution at the trial against activist Kuat Uvaliyev. He demanded that the activist be arrested for 15 days on the charge of “violation of the legislation on the organisation and holding of peaceful assemblies”. Uvaliyev was later arrested for 15 days.

Abdigalymova Aigul

Abdigalymova Aigul Serikbayevna 

Position: Judge of the Specialised Administrative Court of Semey

Participation in human rights violations: On 20 February 2020, Judge Abdigalymova sentenced the activist Kuat Uvaliyev to administrative arrest for 15 days under Article 488 Part 3 of the Code of Administrative Offences (“violation of the legislation on the organisation and holding of peaceful assemblies”).

Torgayev Sarkhytkhan

Torgayev Sarkhytkhan Ramazanovich

Position: Judge of the Specialised Administrative Court of Semey

Participation in human rights violations: On 27 May 2020, Judge Torgayev rejected the complaint of activist Raigul Sadyrbayeva against a fine of 50 MCI (about 265 euro), which was imposed on her on 17 March 2020 for her participation in a protest campaign in support of activist Kuanysh Moldaliyev. In his decision, Judge Torgayev referred to the decision of the Yesilskiy Court of 19 May 2020 on the recognition of the “Koshe Partiyasy” movement  as “extremist” and prohibition of its activity. In this way, the judge applied the force of the law retroactively, as at the time of the alleged offence the decision on “Koshe Partiyasy” movement did not yet exist.

Valiyev Gibrat

Valiyev Gibrat Alkhanovich

Date of birth: 11 August 1962
Position: Judge of the Specialised Administrative Court of Semey

Participation in human rights violations: On 21 September 2019, Judge Valiyev issued a politically motivated decision on the administrative arrest of activist Aidyn Katpushev for 6 days for participation in a picket under Articles 488 and 667 of the Code of Administrative Offences.

Immagambetova Zhannura Sailavbayevna 

Position: Judge of the Specialised Administrative Court of Semey

Participation in human rights violations: On 10 June 2018, Judge Immagambetova handed down a politically motivated decision on the 3-day administrative arrest of activist Aidyn Katpushev for participation in a peaceful protest, under Article 488 of the Code of Administrative Offences.

Dorosh Irina Nikolayevna

Position: Judge of the East Kazakhstan Regional Court

Participation in human rights violations: On 24 June 2020, the judge rejected the complaint of activist Anar Kaliyeva against the fine of 50 MCI (approximately 265 euro) that had been imposed on her for her participation in the “Koshe Partiyasy” movement. The trial, which was chaired by Dorosh, lasted only 9 minutes.

SARYAGASH (Turkestan region)

In the period from September 2019 to October 2020, at least one activist was politically persecuted in Saryagash.

Activist Kanchay Shermakhanbetova from Saryagash has been politically persecuted. The activist was pressured and threatened for participating in a social media chat room “Koshe Partiyasy”.On 5 June 2020 district police officers detained her with the use of brute force. One of the policemen, Bekzhan Medetov, began beating her in a car and using suffocating techniques. Sensing a shortage of air, Shermakhanbetova bit his hand in order to protect herself. Another policeman, Kuanysh Serikbayev, alleged that she hit him in the face, leaving him “unable to speak”. She was taken to the police station and held there for 24 hours. The activist was accused of “using violence against a government official”. (Article 380 Part 1 of the Criminal Code). On 12 October 2020, a Kazakhstani court sentenced Shermakhanbetova to 1 year of restriction of liberty. Shermakhanbetova is a single mother who is raising a 9-year-old child on her own.

Ibraimov Abdugani, Myrzakhmetov Almas and Orazbayev Nurlan

Ibraimov Abdugani

Position: Deputy Head of the District Department of Internal Affairs of Saryagash (left on photo)

Myrzakhmetov Almas

Position: First Deputy Head of the District Department of Internal Affairs of Saryagash district (centre photo)

Orazbayev Nurlan

Position: Second Deputy Head of the District Department of Internal Affairs of Saryagash District, Lieutenant Colonel (right on photo)

Participation in human rights violations: On 3 June 2020 Ibraimov, Myrzakhmetov and Orazbayev attended the interrogation of activist Kanchay Shermakhanbetova. The police were extremely rude to her and accused her of “receiving money from Mukhtar Ablyazov” (an opposition politician, leader of the DCK movement).

Medetov Bekzhan

Position: District Police Officer of the Saryagash district

Serikbayev Kuanysh

Position: District Police Officer of the Saryagash district

Tolegenov Murat

Position: District Police Officer of the Saryagash district

Participation in human rights violations: On 5 June 2020, district officers detained activist Kanchay Shermakhanbetova using brute force. According to the activist, Bekzhan Medetov started beating her in the car and used suffocating techniques. She was accused of “using violence against a government official” (Article 380 Part 1 of the Criminal Code).

Nurkanat Aman

Nurkanat Aman

Position: Investigator, Police Lieutenant

Participation in human rights violations: Nurkanat is investigating the criminal case against Kanchay Shermakhanbetova on the charge of “violence against a representative of power”. (Article 380 Part 1 of the Criminal Code). According to the activist, the investigator constantly threatens her and demands she come to the police station. However, Shermakhanbetova did not receive any official summons for questioning. The investigator also asked her to cooperate with the investigation and to plead guilty. Nurkanat threatens her that, otherwise, she will “be given 2 years of restriction of liberty”.

Kozybayev Aldiyar

Position: Employee of the Internal Policy Department of the Saryagash City Akimat

Sarbaz Abzal

Position: presumed Police or NSC Officer

Bakyt (last name unknown)

Position: presumed Police or NSC Officer

Participation in human rights violations: Kozybayev was present during the interrogation of an activist at the police station on 3 June 2020. Sarbaz Abzal and Bakyt threatened Shermakhanbetova that they would deprive her of her parental rights, and demanded she not go to a protest on 6 June 2020.

Galymzhan

Galymzhan (surname unknown) (photo)

Position: Prosecutor of the Saryagash district

Kasym I.

Position: Prosecutor of the Saryagash district

Participation in human rights violations: On 6 June 2020, public prosecutors participated in the administrative court against Kanchay Shermakhanbetova on charges of “petty hooliganism”. They demanded that the activist be fined. The court fined Shermakhanbetova 13,890 tenge (about 28 euro).

Bayniyazov Sagi Keldenbayevich

Position: Judge of the Specialised Administrative Court of the Saryagash Region

Participation in human rights violations: On 6 June 2020, Judge Bayniyazov issued a decision on an administrative fine in the amount of 13,890 tenge (approximately 28 euro) against Kanchay Shermakhanbetova on charges of “petty hooliganism” (Article 434 of the Code of Administrative Offences).

SHYMKENT

In the period from September 2019 to October 2020, at least 77 activists were subjected to politically motivated persecution in Shymkent.

Altayev Yernar

Position: Head of the Counter-Extremism Department

Participation in human rights violations: On 1 March 2020 managed the detention of peaceful protesters during a protest in Shymkent. The detentions were carried out with the use of gross unreasonable force. In particular, the activist Zhanmurat Ashtayev was detained.

On 14 April 2020, Altayev drew up a protocol on administrative violation against the activist Yerlan Faizullayev for publishing a post calling on people to join the “Koshe Partiyasy” movement. The activist was fined in the amount of 50 MCI (about 265 euro). Faizullayev published the post on 12 April 2020, but the protocol states that this was on 4 April 2020.

Amangeldiyev Dosaly and Otemisova Bakhytkul

Amangeldiyev Dosaly (left on photo)

Position: Deputy Akim of Enbekshinsky Akimat

Otemisova Bakhytkul (right on photo)

Position: Employee of the Enbekshy Sanitary and Epidemiological Service

Participation in human rights violations: On 9 June 2020 a group of activists came to the city prosecutor’s office to write a complaint about the arbitrary detention of activists during a peaceful protest that took place on 6 June 2020 in Shymkent. But an ambulance team, Deputy Akim Dosaly Amangeldiyev and an employee of the sanitary-epidemiological service Otemisova arrived immediately. They began warning about the ban on gatherings due to quarantine. Since 1 June 2020, quarantine measures in Shymkent have been significantly eased. For example, catering facilities with up to 50 seats and kindergartens with groups of up to 20 children were allowed to operate.

Abdiashim Abylay

Position: Employee of Shymkent Internal Policy Department 

Participation in human rights violations: On 6 June 2020, during a protest in Shymkent, Abdiashim helped the police to detain peaceful protesters, covered journalists’ cells with an umbrella and prevented them from working.

Yesenkulov Medet and Abdurakhmanov Muzaffar

Yesenkulov Medet Kanatovich (photo left)

Date of birth: 13 February 1983
Address: Karatau, microdistrict Nursat 146, apt. 11 
ID card: 035930053
Position: Employee of the Karatau District Police Department, captain

Abdurakhmanov Muzaffar (photo on the right)

Position: District Police Officer 

Participation in human rights violations: On 8 May 2019 Yesenkulov and Abdurakhmanov came to the activist Nurken Sultanov to present the summons. The next day, Sultanov appeared at the appointed time with the summons to the Abai District Internal Affairs Office in Shymkent. There, he was forcibly dragged into the District Department of Internal Affairs.

Tastanbekov Arman and Orazbayev Tegen

Tastanbekov Arman (left on photo)

Position: Police Officer

Orazbayev Tegen

Position: Police Officer, Captain

Participation in human rights violations: On 6 June 2020, Tastanbekov and Orazbekov tried to present a summons to activist Aizhan Dzholdasova under the false pretext that she allegedly had not shown up at the Alfarabi District Department of Internal Affairs, although she had been interrogated that day.

Budeyev Sultan and Yeshtay Saparbek

Budeyev Sultan Muratkhanovich (left on photo)

Position: Employee of the Yenbekshy Internal Affairs Department, Police Major

Yeshtay Saparbek Dilyarovich (right on the photo)

Position: District Police Officer of Yenbekshy District, Senior Lieutenant

Participation in human rights violations: On 5 June 2020 Budeyev and Saparbek came to the activist Lyazzat Dosmambetova and demanded she come to the Internal Affairs Department for a preventive conversation before a protest on 6 June 2020. They did not say what they would talk about during the preventive talk. Dosmambetova refused to go with them.

KARAGANDA

In the period from September 2019 to October 2020, at least 19 activists were subjected to politically motivated persecution in Karaganda.

Faizullin Yerlan

Faizullin Yerlan Dzumaseitovich

Date of birth: 1 July 1973
Position: Head of the Karaganda Region Police Department, Colonel

Participation in human rights violations: In connection with his position, Faizullin is personally responsible for massive human rights violations by police officers in the Karaganda Region.

Korobov Andrey

Korobov Andrey

Position: Investigator, Detective Officer of the Southeast Police Department of the Karaganda City Police Department, Police Colonel

Participation in human rights violations: According to activists, Korobov is one of the most active pursuers in Karaganda. In June 2020 Korobov systematically persecuted the activist Indira Mashrapova, daily calling her on the phone, threatening her and calling her to “talk”. On 5 June 2020, Korobov brought a summons for the activists Zulfiya Musilimova and Aidos Nurseit to appear at the Department for Combating Extremism of the Karaganda Region Police Department.

Khasenkhanov Sungat

Position: Senior Investigator, Major of Police

Saparov Bauyrzhan

Position: Detective Officer, Major of Police

Zhanabekov Bekbolat

Position: Police Officer, Major

Participation in human rights violations: On 2 June 2020 Khasenkhanov, Saparov and Zhanabekov made an illegal invasion and searched the house of civil activist Askarali Omarov. The employees did not let him see the search order. Omarov asked the staff several times whether they had a search warrant or a court order, but the law enforcement officials did not provide a single document that confirmed the legality of their actions. Senior Investigator Khasenkhanov said that a criminal case had been initiated against Askarali Omarov, but did not specify under which article. The activist was broadcasting live, but his phone was seized during the filming. Later, the live broadcast was completely removed from his page.

Moldabekov Daniyar and Aubakirov Yerzhan

Moldabekov Daniyar (left on photo)

Position: District Police Officer

Aubakirov Yerzhan (right on photo)

Position: District Police Officer

Participation in human rights violations: On 12 June 2020, Moldabekov and Aubakirov came to the workplace of the activist Asiya Nesipbayeva with an incorrectly completed summons for questioning (the status of the summons was not specified). The district police officers pressured Asiya’s management at her workplace to dismiss her for her involvement in human rights and civil activities and the “Koshe Partiyasy” chat room on Telegram. On 10 June 2020, Asiya Nesipbayeva’s elderly mother was visited and threatened that a criminal case would be opened against her daughter and her granddaughter would be taken to the orphanage if Asiya did not stop her social activities.

Isatayev Rustem

Isatayev Rustem Alibiyevich 

Position: District Police Officer, Captain

Participation in human rights violations: On 21 August 2020, Isatayev presented a summons for questioning to activist Indira Mashrapova in the case of criminal responsibility for supporting the peaceful opposition movement DCK. Earlier Isatayev had followed the activist near her house.

Beisenov Darkhan Kenzhegululy 

Position: Chairman of the Karaganda City Court of the Karaganda Region

Participation in human rights violations: On 4 August 2020, Judge Beisenov issued a politically motivated decision on the administrative arrest of activist Galymzhan Nesipbayev for 10 days under Article 667 of the Code of Administrative Offences.

URALSK

In the period from September 2019 to October 2020 in Uralsk at least 40 activists were subjected to politically motivated persecution.

Kuspayev Kenzhebek

Kuspayev Kenzhebek Suyeuzhanovich 

Position: Former head of the Local Police Service in Uralsk

Participation in human rights violations: On 12 June 2019, Kuspayev detained Lukpan Akhmedyarov, chief editor of the newspaper Uralskaya Nedelya, on Abay Square. After that, Akhmedyarov was convicted for alleged “disobedience to law enforcement officers”. On 6 July 2019, the day of the protest, Kuspayev detained the activist Aslan Sagutdinov, who was sitting on a bench. In February 2020, Kuspayev was dismissed from his position due to corruption among his subordinates.

Zhardemov Muslim and Daumov Nurlybek

Zhardemov Muslim Gilzhanovich (left on photo)

Position: Head of the Local Police Service in Uralsk

Daumov Nurlybek Zhaskayratovich (right on photo)

Date of birth: 1981
Position: Head of Internal Policy Department of West Kazakhstan region

Participation in human rights violations: On 15 March 2018, Zhardemov, Daumov and an employee of the Prosecutor’s Office interrogated human rights activist Aigul Pavel. During the interrogation, employees intimidated the activist with criminal responsibility for supporting the peaceful movement DCK, acquainted her with the court decision to ban DCK, and forced her to sign an explanation about the inadmissibility of supporting the DCK. Pavel was called for questioning without a summons. The interrogation was conducted without a lawyer.

Kushekov Yerbol

Kushekov Yerbol Nasibullinovich

Position: Head of the Internal Policy Department of Uralsk
Date of birth: 6 September 1985
IIN: 850906300284

Participation in human rights violations: On 31 May 2018, Kushekov ordered the police to detain a participant in a one-person picket. On 20 November 2018, he supervised the detention of a disabled pensioner standing with a poster. On 6 May 2019, the police issued an order to detain the activist Aslan Sagutdinov, who was standing with a blank poster.

Shadiyarov Lesbek

Shadiyarov Lesbek

Position: District Police Officer of Police Station No. 4 in Uralsk

Participation in human rights violations: According to human rights activist Aigul Pavel, district police officer Shadiyarov is following her. He calls her younger brother and asks about her whereabouts. He tried to break into the house of the human rights activist.

Kuzhamberliyev Tlek

Kuzhamberliyev Tlek

Position: District Police Officer at Police Station No. 14 in Derkul

Participation in human rights violations: According to human rights activist Aigul Pavel, the district police officer systematically monitors her house during peaceful protests.

Bisengabulov Arman and Tugelov

Bisengabulov Arman

Position: District Police Officer, Major (photo left)

Tugelov (name unknown)

Position: Police officer, Major (photo on the right)

Participation in human rights violations: On 27 February 2019, Bisengabulov followed the chief editor of the newspaper Uralskaya Nedelya, Lukpan Akhmedyarov, in a “Niva” police car. On 6 July 2019, Arman Bisengabulov and his partner Tugelov detained Akhmedyarov. However, Tugelov did not present his work ID card and was wearing civilian clothes. Akhmedyarov was detained when he arrived at the city square on the day of the announced protest.

Yumagulov Sakhipkerey

Yumagulov Sakhipkerey

Position: Police officer of the Municipal Internal Affairs Department, Captain of Police

Participation in human rights violations: On 9 May 2019, the activist Ruslan Kazhganov was detained. Next to Yumagulov was his partner in civilian clothes, who introduced himself as a passerby. According to Kazhganov, Yumagulov’s partner broke the CCTV camera that the activist had installed at his home.

ATYRAU

In the period from September 2019 to October 2020, at least 15 activists were subjected to politically motivated persecution in Atyrau.

Sarsenbayev Nurlan

Sarsenbayev Nurlan 

Position: Commander of the Atyrau Patrol Police Battalion

Participation in human rights violations: In April 2020, a number of Atyrau patrol police officers filed a complaint against Sarsenbayev. Patrolmen reported that Sarsenbayev beats and insults police officers and does not provide sufficient personal protective equipment (masks and gloves) under quarantine conditions. [23], [24]

Zhanbirbayev Zhumageldy and Idirisov Aibol

Zhanbirbayev Zhumageldy Talapovich (left on photo)

Position: Police Officer, Senior Lieutenant

Idirisov Aibol Kairatula (right on photo)

Position: Police Officer

Participation in human rights violations: On 5 March 2020 Idirisov and Zhanbirbayev took part in the arbitrary detention of activist Dianara Mukatova (without a summons). Mukatova was subsequently sentenced to 7 days of administrative arrest on charges of “petty hooliganism” (Article 434 Part 1).

Mukatova is known for being subjected to politically motivated persecution for supporting the opposition movement DCK. In 2018, Mukatova was accused of “inciting social discord” (Article 174 of the Criminal Code) for likes and comments under posts on the pages of the DCK on social networks. The case received wide publicity and was closed. In 2019, a criminal case was brought again against the activist for “reposting the information materials of DCK in social networks”. On 21 October 2019 she was sentenced to 1 year of restriction of liberty with a ban on using social networks.

Bisaliyev Rasul

Position: Investigator

Ryskaliyev Manarbek

Position: Investigator                       

Participation in human rights violations: On 12 June 2019 Bisaliyev and Ryskaliyev interrogated Venera Suyunova and her husband Aslan Suyunov. The spouses were detained as casual passers-by on the city square, as a meeting of the opposition movement DCK was announced there. The couple were taken to the police station. During the interrogation, Ryskaliyev threatened that Aslan Suyunov would receive a prison sentence. He also wondered why they went out to protest. After the interrogation, Bisaliyev forced Suyunov to sign a document that said that the protest was organised by the DCK movement. Suyunova was not allowed to read the contents of the document until she signed it. 

The investigators told her that “they now have proof that she is a member of the DCK”. The activist’s phone was also seized.

Biturin A.

Biturin A. А.

Position: Prosecutor 

Participation in human rights violations: On 6 July 2019, Biturin supported the state prosecution at the trial of the activist Sholak Kubaydola. Kubaydola was found guilty of violating the law on rallies and was fined in the amount of 88,375 tenge (about 190 euro).

Sikenov Zhaksylyk

Position: Prosecutor 

Participation in human rights violations: On 7 August 2020, Sikenov was the public prosecutor at an appeal court hearing in the case of activist Dianara Mukatova. The activist tried to protest the decision to arrest her for 7 days on the charge of “petty hooliganism”, which was taken on 5 March 2020 by the court of first instance. The Court of Appeal rejected Mukatova’s complaint.  According to the activist, she was beaten by prosecutor Sikenov on 1 March 2020.

Khabarov Zhanat

Khabarov Zhanat Samatovich

Position: Chairman of the Atyrau Oblast Indera District Court; previously a judge of the Specialised Inter-Regional Administrative Court of Atyrau

Participation in human rights violations: On 6 July 2019, Judge Khabarov issued a decision on the administrative arrest of activist Sholak Kubaydola for 5 days for an “illegal” rally (Article 488 Part 1 of the Code of Administrative Offence).

KOSTANAY

In the period from September 2019 to October 2020, at least 20 activists were politically persecuted in Kostanay.

Turpergenov Zhalgas Bilisbayevich

Position: Head of the Local Police Service

Ibragimov Talgat

Position: Detective Officer, Senior Lieutenant

Participation in human rights violations: On 6 June 2020, the day of a peaceful protest, Turpergenov and Ibragimov forcibly took activist Yerbolat Kenesbayev to the Taranovsky district police department.

Kazhingaliyev Berik

Kazhingaliyev Berik 

Position: Kostanay Internal Affairs Officer, Major of Police

Participation in human rights violations: Keeps track of the activist Askar Ibrayev. On 5 June 2020, Askar Ibrayev was detained, allegedly on the instructions of Kazhingaliyev.

Moldakhmetov Nurlan

Moldahmetov Nurlan Zilgaraevich 

Position: District Police Officer, Major

Participation in human rights violations: On 6 June 2020 Moldahmetov participated in the arrest by force of Olga Zhailaubayeva, an activist. At first, Moldakhmetov served the activist with a summons to appear as a witness in a criminal case and then, together with other police officers, pushed her into a car. The activist was taken to the police station and interrogated there.

Kenzhetayeva Gulmira Batyrkhanova

Position: Senior Prosecutor

Participation in human rights violations: On 21 January 2020 Kenzhetayeva acted as a public prosecutor at a politically motivated trial against the activists of DCK Askar Ibrayev and Medet Yeseneyev. Kenzhetayeva asked the court to sentence Ibrayev and Yeseneev to 1 year of imprisonment.

In August 2019, Ibrayev and Medet Yeseneyev hung two banners in Kostanay calling for the release of political prisoner Mukhtar Dzhakishev. Also, according to the investigation, they made several inscriptions in support of DCK: “DCK Alga” (“Go, DCK”), “Shal Ket” (“Old man, leave!”), “Power to the people”. The indictment states that Ibrayev “acted as the organiser of the clandestine DCK unit” and “was in constant contact with representatives of the DCK headquarters, was registered in the Telegram messenger and subscribed to the DCK-related pages”. 

On 21 January 2020, the court sentenced Askar Ibrayev and Medet Yeseneyev to 1 year of restricted freedom on charges of “participation in the organisation after its recognition as extremist”.

Satmagambetov Samat Kazhmukhanovich

Position: Judge of Court No. 2 of Kostanay

Participation in human rights violations: On 21 January 2020, Judge Satmagambetov passed a politically motivated verdict of guilty on activists Askar Ibrayev and Medet Yeseneyev for “participation in the organisation after its recognition as extremist” (Article 405 of the Criminal Code). The activists were sentenced to 1 year of restricted freedom.

Mukhamedzhanova Lyazzat Zhagalovna

Position: Judge of Court No. 2 of Kostanay

Participation in human rights violations: On 12 June 2020, Judge Mukhamedzhanova made a politically motivated decision that the activist of the opposition movement DCK Askar Ibrayev had violated his probationary regime. On 21 January 2020, he was sentenced to 1 year of restriction of liberty for supporting DCK. Mukhamedzhanova replaced the restriction of liberty with a real prison term due to the fact that the activist had participated in a chat room of the movement “Koshe Partiyasy” on social networks and recorded a video in support of the persecuted activists.

KYZYLORDA 

In the period from September 2019 to October 2020, at least 24 activists were politically persecuted in Kyzylorda.

Kordabayev Nurlybek

Position: Police Officer, Major

Imanov Aidos Omirbekuly

Position: Police Officer

Meirambekuly Erkebulan

Position: Police Officer

Participation in human rights violations: On 6 June 2020, activist Murat Baimagambetov was detained and taken to the police station for participation in a peaceful rally. According to the activist, Kordabayev, Imanov and Meirambekuly beat him at the police station, causing physical injuries.

Azamat (last name unknown)

Position: Police Officer

Galymzhan (surname unknown)

Position: Police Officer

Participation in human rights violations: On 4 June 2020 police officers came to the workplace of the activist Aliya Urasheva and threatened that they were collecting information on her. They also came to Urasheva’s house and accused her husband, Serik Abyzbayev, of participating in the chats of the opposition movement “Koshe Partiyasy”. Employees removed the Telegram application from Abyzbayev’s phone so that he could not enter the Koshe Partiyasy chats. There is reason to believe that the law enforcement agencies are tapping Aliya Urasheva’s phone, as police officers Azamat and Galymzhan were aware of the subject of the phone conversation between Urasheva and other activists.

LENGER (Turkestan region)

In the period from September 2019 to October 2020 at Lenger, at least one activist was subjected to politically motivated persecution.

Mazhenov Sapar, Kadyrbayev Zhumagali, Temirbekov Spandiyar, Kendyrbayev Dauren

Mazhenov Sapar (left on photo)

Position: Police Officer, Major

Kadyrbayev Zhumagali (centre photo)

Position: Police Officer, Major

Temirbekov Spandiyar (left on the photo on the right)

Position: Police Officer, Major

Kendyrbayev Dauren (right on the photo on the right)

Position: Police Officer, Captain

Bekembayev Ayan

Position: Lieutenant Colonel of Police and Deputy Chief of the Tolebi District Department of Internal Affairs of Turkestan Region

Participation in human rights violations: On 6 June 2020, police officers used force to arrest activist Murat Baidauletov and take him to the Lenger Regional Department of Internal Affairs. The activist’s phone was taken away. During the interrogation he was asked questions about his participation in the Koshe Partiyasy movement. He was not given a record of the interrogation. Previously these employees had been monitoring the activist’s house 24 hours a day.

TARAZ

In the period from September 2019 to October 2020, at least 22 activists were subjected to politically motivated persecution in Taraz.

Baiserkenov Murat

Baiserkenov Murat Karimovich

Position: Head of the Local Police Service of the Zhambyl Oblast Police Department, Police Colonel 

Participation in human rights violations: On 9 June 2019 Murat Baiserkenov and several other law enforcement officers detained activists Orazbek Sadykov and Mazhit Akbergenov for walking across the square on the day of the presidential elections. The activists were suspected of intending to take part in a protest. Sadykov is a person with disability.

Kalymbetov Nauatbek

Kalymbetov Nauatbek Serpenovich

Position: Acting Head of the Department for Combating Extremism in the Zhambyl Region, Police Colonel
Date of birth: 22 October 1970 

Participation in human rights violations: On 8 August 2020 Kalimbetov, together with a young man of athletic build, came to the activist Bagdat Baktybayev, who was in a pre-trial detention facility and threatened the activist with torture for more than 1.5 hours for his civil position. Late in the evening on 10 August 2020, after his release from the pre-trial detention facility, Baktybayev was attacked by six sportsmen. They tried to drag the activist into their car. There is reason to believe that the bandits’ actions were coordinated by the police, as the attack took place immediately after Baktybayev left the detention facility.

Raiymkulov Dauren

Raiymkulov Dauren Kuatbekovich

Date of birth: 30 August 1988
Position: Prosecutor of the Ryskulovsky District of Zhambyl Oblast

Participation in human rights violations: On 18 September 2019, he imposed an administrative fine on the activist Saule Dzhazikbayeva in the amount of 88,375 tenge (approximately 168 euro) for calling for a peaceful protest on a social network on 21 September 2019.

EKIBASTUZ

In the period from September 2019 to October 2020, at least 6 activists were subjected to politically motivated persecution in Ekibastuz.

Kasymov Tahir and Zhumalinov Ilyas

Kasymov Tahir Ordzhiogly

Position: District Police Officer (photo left)

Zhumalinov Ilyas Dauletuli

Position: Police Officer (photo on the right)

Participation in human rights violations: On 2 August 2020, Kasymov and Zhumalinov stopped the car of activist Kaliaskar Amrenov, who was about to take part in a memorial ceremony in honour of activist Dulat Agadil, who died in the pre-trial detention facility. Police officers issued a summons to the activist on the hood of his automobile, although the law requires an investigator to fill in the summons. Amrenov was subsequently arrested for 15 days.

Nursultanova Dinara

Nursultanova Dinara Kairzhanovna

Date of birth: 7 June 1982
Position: Judge of the Specialised Administrative Court of Ekibastuz

Participation in human rights violations: On 18 August 2020, Judge Nursultanova handed down a politically motivated decision on the administrative arrest of activist Maksut Appasov for 15 days under Article 488 of the Code of Administrative Offences.

PETROPAVLOVSK 

In the period from September 2019 to October 2020 in Petropavlovsk, at least 4 activists were subjected to politically motivated persecution.

Akhayev Tleuzhan and Yerezhepov Askhat

Akhayev Tleuzhan

Position: Senior Investigator for Special Cases of the Internal Affairs Department of the North-Kazakhstan Region, Lieutenant Colonel (photo left)

Yerezhepov Askhat

Position: NSC employee (photo on the right)

Participation in human rights violations: Akhayev and Yerezhepov participated in the criminal prosecution of blogger and activist Azamat Baikenov. On 15 December 2019, a pre-trial investigation was initiated against Baikenov “on the facts of distribution of materials in social networks with signs of incitement of social discord”. Later he was accused of participation in the opposition movement DCK. The case materials claim that Baikenov publishes files with “opposition content on social networks, expressing his and other people’s inferences that support the ideas of the DCK”. In May 2020, a court sentenced Baikenov to 1 year of restricted freedom for participation in the opposition movement DCK. 

In addition, investigator Akhayev is conducting a criminal case under Article 405 Part 2 against activist Nurbol Onerkhan. On 8 September 2020, Onerkhan was placed under house arrest for 2 months for the duration of the investigation. He is being prosecuted for his participation in the memorial ceremony of the murdered activist Dulat Agadil, participation in pickets and video protest campaign activities, as well as for criticising the authorities of Kazakhstan.

According to activists, Yerezhepov collects data on activists, puts pressure on them, threatens them and has a false police ID. On 28 December 2019 Yerezhepov threatened the activist Nurbol Onerkhan with criminal prosecution.

Investigator Akhayev is conducting a criminal case under Article 405 Part 2 against Nurbol Onerkhan. On 8 September 2020 Onerkhan was placed under house arrest for 2 months for the duration of an investigation in connection with his participation in the memorial ceremony in honour of Dulat Agadil on 24 July 2020 and 8 August 2020.

ZHANAOZEN

In the period from September 2019 to October 2020, at least 8 activists were subjected to politically motivated persecution in Zhanaozen.

Tokbayev Bauyrzhan

Tokbayev Bauyrzhan Kalmukhanovich

Position: Chairman of the Zhanaozen City Court

Participation in human rights violations: On 17 October 2019, Judge Tokbayev sentenced the activist Yerzhan Yelshibayev to 5 years in prison on charges of “intentional infliction of grievous bodily harm from hooliganism (Article 106 Part 2 of the Criminal Code)” for events that allegedly occurred in 2017. Yelshibayev was prosecuted after he took part in peaceful protests by the unemployed in Zhanaozen in February 2019. The unemployed were demanding employment and social protection.

Kalauova Kenzhekul Mamytbekovna

Position: Judge of the Specialised Administrative Court of Zhanaozen

Participation in human rights violations: On 20 August 2020, Judge Kalauova conducted trials against 6 activists of the Democratic Party of Kazakhstan. By the decision of the judge, 5 activists were arrested for 10 days under Article 488 of the Code of Administrative Offences, and 1 activist received an administrative warning.

STEPNOGORSK (Akmola region)

In the period from September 2019 to October 2020, at least 2 activists were subjected to politically motivated persecution in Stepnogorsk.

Zhumash Bagdaulet

Zhumash Bagdaulet Muratula (photo)

Position: Police Officer, Captain

Azat (last name unknown)

Position: District Police Officer

Participation in human rights violations: On 21 March 2020, Zhumash, together with the district Azat, came to see activist Aya Sadvakasova and took her for questioning without a subpoena. On 10 February 2020 Zhumash also visited Sadvakasova.

SHORTANDY (Akmola region)

In the period from September 2019 to October 2020, at least one activist was politically persecuted in Shortandy.

Sambetov Askar Zhumabayevich

Position: Senior Operations Officer of the Shortandinsky District Department of Internal Affairs

Absalyamov Zhanbolat Nasretdinovich

Position: District Police Officer

Participation in human rights violations: On 3 June 2020, Sambetov and Absalyamov handed the summons to Amangeldy Dzhakhin, an activist, to be interrogated in the District Department of Internal Affairs as a witness to a “conversation”. The District Department of Internal Affairs threatened him with criminal responsibility for his participation in the Koshe Partiyasy and DCK chats at Telegram. From the evening of 5 June 2020 to the evening of 6 June 2020, a civilian car was on duty near Dzhakhin’s house in order to prevent him from taking part in a peaceful protest on 6 June 2020.

ENKES (Turkestan region)

In the period from September 2019 to October 2020, at least one activist was subjected to politically motivated persecution in Enkes.

Ualiyev Askerbek

Position: District Police Officer, Captain

Participation in human rights violations: On 30 April 2020, Ualiyev arrived at the house of activist Murat Bayelov, bringing with him Bayelov’s parents. Ualiyev insulted the activist and threatened that he would “harm his parents and children” and that he would “punish him according to the law” if he did not stop practising civil activism. The district police officer threatened that he would “close” his younger brother’s business. Ualiyev also put pressure on the activist at his place of work, demanding his dismissal.

PAVLODAR

In the period from September 2019 to October 2020, at least 15 activists were subjected to politically motivated persecution in Pavlodar.

Rakhimov Farhat

Rakhimov Farhat Abaybekovich

Date of birth: 8 May 1984
IIN: 800619302029
ID card: 017805658, issued 19 August 2005 by the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Position: First Deputy Head of the Bayanaul District Police Department

Participation in human rights violations: On 11 September 2020, Rakhimov filed a lawsuit against activist Daryn Khassenov, who recorded a video calling on the police not to persecute civilians. It should be noted that the lawsuit was filed against Khasenov after he and several other activists established the “Bostandyk” human rights movement.

UST-KAMENOGORSK

In the period from September 2019 to October 2020, at least 26 activists in Ust-Kamenogorsk were subjected to politically motivated persecution.

Nurgazin Alimbek

Nurgazin Alimbek Kadylbekovich

Position: Judge of the Ulan District Court of the East Kazakhstan Region

Participation in human rights violations: On 21 August 2020, Judge Nurgazin issued a politically motivated sentence to activist Ruslan Nurkanov – restriction of liberty for a period of 1.5 years under Article 405 Part 2 of the Criminal Code.

7. Conclusions and recommendations

Every official involved in the persecution of activists and participants in peaceful protests is personally responsible for the violation of civil and political rights guaranteed by Article 32 of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan [Article 32 of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan: Citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan have the right to assemble, hold meetings, rallies and demonstrations, marches and pickets peacefully and without arms]. By ratifying the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Kazakhstan has undertaken to respect, in particular, the right to peaceful assembly, the right to free expression of opinion and freedom of thought [Article 21 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights]. The authorities of Kazakhstan have undertaken human rights obligations under the Agreement on Extended Partnership and Cooperation with the European Union and other treaties. 

The Open Dialogue Foundation calls on the authorities of Kazakhstan to fulfil its international human rights obligations, to immediately cease the persecution of civil activists and peaceful protesters, to close all administrative and criminal cases being brought against them, and to rehabilitate all those who have been punished for exercising their civil and constitutional rights. We recall the need to implement the European Parliament resolution on the human rights situation in Kazakhstan dated 14 March 2019, as well as all requirements of UN bodies.

The Open Dialogue Foundation also calls on UN bodies, the OSCE, the Council of Europe, the European Parliament and the foreign missions of EU member states in Kazakhstan: 

  • To continuously monitor Kazakhstan’s compliance with its human rights obligations, and to publicly discuss these issues at international platforms with the participation of civil society representatives, victims of political persecution, lawyers, and the authorities of Kazakhstan.
  • To introduce a sanctions mechanism to bring human rights violators personally to justice in Kazakhstan. 
  • To implement the provisions of the Enlarged Treaty on Partnership and Cooperation between the EU and Kazakhstan, which provide for the possibility of freezing economic cooperation due to systematic violations of Kazakhstan’s international human rights obligations.

We call on the US government and the UK government: 

  • To include the violators of human rights presented in this report on the list of persons banned from obtaining visas to the USA and UK.
  • To freeze the assets and accounts of senior Kazakhstani officials responsible for political assassinations and torture of opposition members. 
  • To publicly condemn political persecution and the lack of investigation into torture and other gross violations by law enforcement authorities; to exert pressure on the authorities of Kazakhstan to ensure that all those responsible for prosecution of civil society are held accountable.
  • To please note that the assurances of the Kazakhstani authorities that the assets of Nursultan Nazarbayev’s family and his surrounding are allegedly legitimate, in response to requests, are a political manipulation and are intended to avoid criminal liability for involvement in large-scale corruption.

We would be grateful to the citizens of Kazakhstan for the further collection of photo, video and personal data of the persons mentioned in this report, as well as information on other officials involved in gross human rights violations in Kazakhstan.