Polish MP, Member of Parliament of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd term, senator of the 1st and 2nd term. Deputy Speaker of the Senate of the 1st term. In 2008-2009, Member of the European Parliament. In the years 1942-1945, soldier of the Home Army, in the communist period – democratic opposition activist. During the strikes in August 1980, he was a member of the Committee of Experts of the Presidium of the Inter-Factory Strike Committee. In 1989, he participated on the side of the opposition in the Round Table. He was decorated with the Commander’s Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta and the Order of the White Eagle. By education, he is a lawyer.